Man's physical universe

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AERODYNAMICS 373

right.

After attaining the proper degree of bank, the stick is returned

to neutral. Any lateral movement of the stick is only temporary,

while banking the airplane or taking it out of bank.

3. The lateral or transverse axis. Rotation about the Y-axis produces

what is called the pitch, i.e., the motion in which the nose goes

up or down.

Rudder

Rudder

Elevator

Tab

\

Aileron

L

Fig. 165.

How an airplane is controlled in flight.

When the stick is pulled back by the hand of the pilot it throws the

rear elevators upward and thus forces the tail of the plane downward

and the nose upward. Thus one pulls the stick toward him to ascend

and pushes it away from him to descend.

The Vertical and the Horizontal Stabilizers Make Flying Easier.

The loading of an airplane may be such that it changes its center of

gravity; the consumption of gasoline decreases the weight of the fuel,

and the amount of freight and number of passengers also change the

center of gravity.

If the airplane fiys nose-heavy, the pilot must exert

a constant pull-back on the stick, or he must adjust the horizontal

stabilizer to a position where the nose will neither be up nor down

when the stick is released.

The action of the propeller on the air not only creates a backward

thrust but also causes the swirling motion in the air which tends to

yaw the plane by its action on the vertical tail surfaces. The vertical

stabilizer is adjusted to overcome this force by adjusting the trimming

tab or ofTsetting the vertical fin.

{i.e.,

Counterclockwise rotation of the plane produced by the torque

the rotational force) due to the clockwise motion of the propeller

is prevented by reducing the lift of the right wing and increasing the

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