Man's physical universe



Colors Are Used by Artists to Achieve Desired Effects in Accordance

with Definitely Established Rules.

In painting a picture, selecting clothing, or decorating a home, one

should follow the example set by nature. In nature brilliant hues are

never present except in touches such as contributed by occasional

flowers. Colors in nature harmonize with each other because they are

mixed in varying proportions and thus prevent sharp contrasts.

Nature employs green in large masses in the spring, but these greens

are of many values and vary from yellow-greens to blue-greens. As

other colors develop, these greens become darker and grayer and


Yellow Orange

Yellow Green



Red Orange

Blue Green


Red Violet


Blue Violet

Fig. 185. The color circle. Place an equilateral triangle anywhere on the color

circle to obtain colors which will harmonize with each other. When using pigments,

the colors at opposite positions on the color circle are complementary


gradually change to browns until in the fall the orange, red, and yellow

colors of the flowers and colored leaves blend in

with the browns in

the background. Red is never found in masses in nature along with

green masses but only in touches on butterflies, wings of birds, flowers,

and fall leaves.

When one rotates an equilateral

triangle within a color circle, the

points of the triangle will indicate the colors which will harmonize with

each other.

When using pigments, the directly opposite colors on the

standard color circle are complementary.

Red, yellow, and blue are primary colors, while orange, green, and

violet are secondary colors — they are called secondary because they

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