Man's physical universe

xanabras

40 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS

heat, sound, light, and electricity. Mechanical, civil, and electrical

engineering are branches of applied physics.

Chemistry. Chemistry is concerned with the study of changes in the

composition of matter, whereas physics is restricted to the study of

those changes in matter which do not involve a change in the composition

of matter. Chemistry is subdivided into inorganic and .organic

chemistry. Each branch of chemistry usually involves, first, a general

survey of the whole field, followed by qualitative analysis and quantitative

analysis. Physical chemistry is an advanced study in which

physics and chemistry are so integrated that their identity is lost.

The artificial barriers between physics and chemistry disappear for

advanced workers in either field. For example, some of the greatest

developments in the field of theoretical chemistry, such as the nuclear

transformations of atoms, have been developed by scientists who call

themselves physicists.

There are literally hundreds of branches of applied chemistry, among

w^hich may be mentioned rubber, fertilizers, soil, nutrition, leather,

ceramics, metallurgy, plastics, explosives, water, and sewage.

Geology. Geology employs the fundamentals of physics and chemistry

in the study of the form, structure, and changes of the earth.

Some of the more important subdivisions of geology are petrology,

the study of rocks; volcanology, the study of vulcanism; and seismology,

the study of earthquakes. The chief practical application of

geology is petroleum geology.

Mineralogy. Mineralogy applies the principles of chemistry and

physics to the study of minerals. An important branch of mineralogy

is crystallography, the study of the crystalline forms of minerals.

Astronomy. Astronomy deals with the study of the stars, the sun,

the planets, and other heavenly bodies. The chief practical applications

of astronomy are found in navigation, time, and the calendar.

Geography. The study of geography is probably the best of the

specialized branches of physical science for the purposes of general education

because it integrates information gained in all of the other

physical sciences in terms of some of the vital problems of man which

arise in his attempt to adjust himself to his environment.

Two of the branches of geography are physiography, the study of the

earth's physical features, and biological geography, the study of life

conditions of plants and animals, including man. Economic geography

is a special branch of biological geography which deals with man's

industries.

Meteorology. Meteorology deals with the study of climate and

weather, and its chief application is in the field of weather prediction.

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines