40 THE INTELLIGENT SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS heat, sound, light, and electricity. Mechanical, civil, and electrical engineering are branches of applied physics. Chemistry. Chemistry is concerned with the study of changes in the composition of matter, whereas physics is restricted to the study of those changes in matter which do not involve a change in the composition of matter. Chemistry is subdivided into inorganic and .organic chemistry. Each branch of chemistry usually involves, first, a general survey of the whole field, followed by qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Physical chemistry is an advanced study in which physics and chemistry are so integrated that their identity is lost. The artificial barriers between physics and chemistry disappear for advanced workers in either field. For example, some of the greatest developments in the field of theoretical chemistry, such as the nuclear transformations of atoms, have been developed by scientists who call themselves physicists. There are literally hundreds of branches of applied chemistry, among w^hich may be mentioned rubber, fertilizers, soil, nutrition, leather, ceramics, metallurgy, plastics, explosives, water, and sewage. Geology. Geology employs the fundamentals of physics and chemistry in the study of the form, structure, and changes of the earth. Some of the more important subdivisions of geology are petrology, the study of rocks; volcanology, the study of vulcanism; and seismology, the study of earthquakes. The chief practical application of geology is petroleum geology. Mineralogy. Mineralogy applies the principles of chemistry and physics to the study of minerals. An important branch of mineralogy is crystallography, the study of the crystalline forms of minerals. Astronomy. Astronomy deals with the study of the stars, the sun, the planets, and other heavenly bodies. The chief practical applications of astronomy are found in navigation, time, and the calendar. Geography. The study of geography is probably the best of the specialized branches of physical science for the purposes of general education because it integrates information gained in all of the other physical sciences in terms of some of the vital problems of man which arise in his attempt to adjust himself to his environment. Two of the branches of geography are physiography, the study of the earth's physical features, and biological geography, the study of life conditions of plants and animals, including man. Economic geography is a special branch of biological geography which deals with man's industries. Meteorology. Meteorology deals with the study of climate and weather, and its chief application is in the field of weather prediction.
ORGANIZATION IS NECESSARY 41 STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Which is the correct way to measure fataHties for comparing the relative safety of travel by airplane and railroad: (a) the number of fatalities per passenger-hour, (b) the number of fatalities per passenger-mile, or (c) the number of fatalities for trips between two identical points by each method of transportation? Which method of measuring would favor the railroad, which would favor the airplane, and which would tell the truth, and why? 2. Is it true that "figures never lie"? 3. Why is it said that "you can prove anything by statistics"? 4. Why are some straw votes such as the Gallup poll more accurate than others? 5. W'ould it be possible to take a poll that would be cheaper than, but just as accurate as, a general election in determining the desire of the entire population? 6. What is the business of mathematics? 7. Why are mathematical tools never absolute? 8. W'hat is the business of statistics? 9. W'hat are the fundamental physical sciences? 10. Why do we have "sciences" instead of "Science"? 11. What are the three main types of sciences? Which is the most complex? 12. List three sciences in each of the three divisions of Science. 13. List the most important sciences in the order of their historical development.