Man's physical universe

xanabras

UNIT VIII

SECTION 8

THE TRANSFER OF PROTONS CONSTITUTES AN IMPOR-

TANT TYPE OF ELECTROVALENT REACTION

Introduction.

All electrovalent reactions may be classified into three main types:

(1) those involving recombination of ions, (2) those involving electron

transfer, and (3) those involving proton transfer. Previous sections

have dealt with the first two types of reactions.

acids and bases and their reactions.

Section 7 dealt with

This Section will take up the third

type of reaction, that of proton transfer, which is characteristic of

acids and bases only.

Neutralization Is the Action of Hydronium Ions with Hydroxyl Ions to

Form Water.

When acids react with bases, water and salts are produced. This

process is called neutralization. Thus, hydrochloric acid reacts with

sodium hydroxide to produce sodium chloride and water.

(H30)+, CI- + Na+, (OH)- —>- Na+, CI" + 2 H2O

hydrochloric acid sodium hydroxide sodium chloride water

The sodium ions, Na"*", and chloride ions, CI", do not change. The

only change observed is that hydronium ions, (HsO)^, combine with

hydroxyl ions, (OH)-, to produce water. A study of all other neutralization

reactions will show that the above reaction is the only change

that takes place. Neutralization is therefore essentially a combination

of hydronium ions, (H30)+, with hydroxyl ions, (OH)", to form water.

(H30)+ + (OH)-—>- 2 H2O

The Completion of Neutralization Reactions May Be Indicated by Certain

Colored Weak Proton-donors.

Neutralization reactions, as already pointed out, are reactions in

which protons are transferred from acids to bases to form salts and

water.

Such reactions are very important, because in this way many

In many cases it is desired to neutralize acids and

salts are prepared.

605

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines