Man's physical universe



A detergent is a material which cleans by chemical action rather than

by solvent action or mechanical means.

Oranges produce a basic reaction in the human body, although they

are definitely acid in nature, because the excess citric acid, being an

organic compound, is burned up in the body to form carbon dioxide

and water and is thus eliminated, while the sodium salts in the orange

juice, being salts of a strong base with a weak acid, hydrolyze to form

basic solutions.

Certain substances, called buffers, are very important in maintaining

a nearly constant hydronium-ion concentration in the human body.

An excess or deficiency of hydronium ions results in disorders which

are generally described as acidosis, alkalosis, or hyper- and hypo-acidity.

Buffer substances must be able to neutralize both acids and bases.

Disodium phosphate is a good buffer substance; inasmuch as it is an

acid salt, it will neutralize bases, and inasmuch as it will accept protons,

it will neutralize acids.

Proteins are capable of reacting with either acids or bases and thus

act as buffers, but inasmuch as they are altered somewhat in these

reactions and also because they are the substances from which living

tissue is made, it is obvious that this reserve should not be overworked.

Baking soda is an excellent buffer substance; it will react with acids

and is therefore often taken internally to relieve acid indigestion. Baking

soda acts as an acid because it is an acid salt ; and it acts as a base

because it accepts protons to form a weakly electrovalent covalent



1. Define neutralization and illustrate with some examples.

2. Define hydrolysis and illustrate with some examples.

3. What types of salts hydrolyze, and why?

4. Explain the action of baking powders.

5. How may one tell when an acid solution is just neutralized by addition of a

solution of a base?

6. Why do all soaps produce a basic reaction when they are dissolved in water?

7. What is a buffer substance? Give an example.

8. Why does acid orange juice act as a base in the body?

9. Explain the action of the foamite type of fire-extinguisher.

10. Why are buffer substances of importance in the human body? What types

of substances act as buffers in the human body?

11. What are the ingredients in the "S.A.S." type of baking powder?

12. Explain the action of indicators.

13. Why is baking soda a good perspiration deodorant?

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