Man's physical universe

xanabras

:

I

OC

I

616 MAN IS MASTERING HIS MATERIAL WORLD

An ether is an oxide of hydrocarbon radicals; diethyl ether is

(C2H5)20.

A ketone consists of two hydrocarbon radicals joined to a carbonyl

radical, CO. Acetone, the varnish solvent and paint remover, is

(CH3)2C=0.

Carbohydrates (sugars, starches, celluloses, etc.) are chain hydro-

O

carbons in which alcohol radicals, OH, and aldehyde radicals, C— H,

or ketone radicals, C=0, have replaced some of the hydrogen atoms;

for example

CH,OH

H C—

C

^

H

I

O OH H /

/ \l 1/

H C—

H OH

glucose

OH

Esters are compounds formed by the action of organic acids with

alcohols.

CH3COOH + C2H5OH —> CH3COOC2H5 + H2O

acetic acid ethyl alcohol ethyl acetate water

Fats are esters formed by the action of the alcohol, glycerol, with

certain organic acids. When fats are treated with strong inorganic

bases such as sodium hydroxide, the metal of

the base replaces the

glycerol radical, which combines with the hydroxyl group, OH, of the

base to form glycerol. The metallic salt of the acid which is thus

produced is called a soap, and the reaction by which the soap is thus

produced is called saponification.

Proteins consist of long chains or networks of amino acids joined

one to another. An amino acid is an organic acid in which one of the

hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon radical has been replaced by an

amino group, NH2.

CH3COOH

acetic acid

CH2NH2COOH

aminoacetic acid

Amines are amino derivatives of hydrocarbons:

C2H5NH2

ethylamine

CH3NH2

methylaminc

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