Man's physical universe

xanabras

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COVALENT REACTIONS 617

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Permit Addition Reactions as Well as Substitution

Reactions.

There are many possible unsaturated hydrocarbons, inasmuch as

one or more double or triple bonds may be introduced into the chains.

H

H

Ethylene, H—C^C—H, is the simplest hydrocarbon with a double bond.

It is now used as an anaesthetic, fruit ripener and colorer, and celery

bleacher. Acetylene, H—C^C—H, is the simplest hydrocarbon with

a triple bond. Because of its triple bond, it is very active, and it is

used in the synthesis of many other products, as well as in acetylene

lights and welding.

Ethylene or acetylene will add on chlorine directly:

H

H

H—C=C—H + CI2

H

H

H—C—C—

H—C^C—H + 2C12'

CI

CI

CI

CI

-^ H—C—C—

CI

CI

Carbon Also Forms Ring Hydrocarbons.

There are many kinds of cyclic hydrocarbons and their derivatives,

such as camphor and furan,

H

H H—C—

H— C- C

H H

H— C-

I

H

H—C—C—C—

H

HC

H

Camphor

II

II

HC

\ /

O

Furan

H

CH

CH

-C=0

-C—

H

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