Man's physical universe




1. Criticize the following Miscellaneous Fallacies taken from A. Wolf, Exercises

in Logic and Scientific Method, The Macmillan Co.

(1) A vacuum is impossible, for two bodies must touch if there is nothing

between them.

(2) Human life will at some time disappear from the earth, for all men must


(3) To be wealthy is not to be healthy; not to be healthy is to be miserable;

therefore, to be wealthy is to be miserable.

(4) When any condition of life is empty of evil, we easily imagine it to be

full of good.

(5) The proportion of inmates in our asylums who can read and write is very

high, from which we may infer that education is among the causes of


2. Criticize the statement, " Effects always follow causes. The disturbance of

the air in front of ... a moving automobile is the cause of the automobile."

3. Criticize the statement, "He is rich, for he has plenty of time; and 'time is


4. Is the following conclusion logical? Why or why not? " Whoever has virtue

has good; good includes freedom; therefore the virtuous man alone is free."

5. Is propaganda always undesirable?

6. Compare propaganda with disinterested instruction.

7. Show the fallacy in the following argument:

All Men Are Liars

Therefore he was a liar

Therefore, what he said was not true

Therefore, all men are not liars

But if he were not a liar

What he said was true —

"All men are liars."

8. List some examples of the use of repetition in radio advertising.

9. Make a list of the most popular ideas today and show how these are the

means between two extremes. Which extreme is more likely to be correct

than the compromise which is so popular?

10. When is a person a capitalist?

IL When is a person a radical?

12. When is a sheet of paper white?

13. List as many of the common slogans and proverbs of today as you can, and

try to show that there are many situations and many details in which they

are not true. How many of these slogans are true with respect to the circumstances

in which they were first used?

14. Can you suggest any exceptions to the following statements?

"Virtue is its own reward."

"Americans are dollar-chasers."

"Europeans are degenerate."

"The Germans were responsible for the World War."

"The World War was fought to end war and to make the world safe for


" Be wise and alkalize."

"All men are born equal."

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