672 CREATIVE CHEMISTRY 8. ShrinkpTOofing. "Sanforizing," i.e., preshrinking, has largely solved the problem of the shrinking of cotton textiles, and it is being introduced more and more widely. Sulfur\'l chloride prevents the shrinking of wool without injuring the fibers. The treatment of textiles as outlined above leaves much to be desired, the most serious difficulty being that most of these processes are mutually exclusive. Research must be carried out to discover materials that will provide more of the above advantages for a single fabric. Lignin, a By-product of the Cellulose Industry, Is One of Our Greatest Industrial Waste and Stream-pollution Problems. Lignin is the noncarbohydrate portion of extractive-free, woody, plant tissue. Its chemical structure is not known. Fifteen million tons of lignin are available each year from sawdust, shavings, and other forms of wood waste. The wood-pulp industry- must dispose of twelve million gallons of lignin solution each day. Millions of tons of lignin are available in such agricultural wastes as corncobs, grain hulls, bagasse, and waste straw. Such an enormous supply of lignin not only taxes our ingenuity in disposing of it but also challenges us to do the necessary research to discover its true chemical nature and utilize it as a raw material in the manufacture of still more "better things for better living." Research already carried out shows that lignin may be used in the manufacture of plastics. Perhaps plastic boards may replace lumber in house construction some day, thus providing a beautiful, fire-retardant material which would require no protective coatings. Perhaps lignin research may meet the need for a cheap, wear-resistant flooring material. Other researches suggest the possibility of manufacturing lignin adhesives for use in road-building. One interesting product now obtained from lignin is vanillin, used in making imitation "vanilla flavor" extracts. 1. What is cellulose? STUDY QUESTIONS 2. What products are obtained from cellulose by simple physical changes? 3. Is the preparation of rayon a physical or chemical change? 4. Give the basic principles involved in the preparation of "cellophane." 5. Outline the processes which utilize cellulose to produce "better things for better living." 6. In what respects is the E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company's slogan "better things for better living through chemistry" well illustrated in this Section?
"BETTER THINGS" FROM CELLULOSE 67 3 7. List the products obtained from cellulose by dissolving and reprecipitating it. 8. How has cellulose been made into a digestible carbohydrate for human use? 9. What is rayon? What different characteristics may be imparted to rayon? 10. What is lignin, and why does it constitute a problem for research today? IL What are the disadvantages of lumber that the chemist might try to eliminate either by treating the lumber or by producing new materials to replace it? 12. Mention two products discussed in this lesson which have had a distinct bearing upon our economic relationship with Japan. 13. Suggest some of the possible important and unexpected consequences of a possible widespread use of "throw-away" products similar to "Pervel" to replace cloth fabrics.