694 CREATIVE CHEMISTRY coal) with steam. The hydrogenation of coal was used on a large scale by Germany in 1939-1941 to furnish fuels for internal-combustion engines. It is said that Germany spent about $25,000,000 in perfecting the hydrogenation of coal. Their patent royalties in one country alone soon paid back this amount. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. What is meant by a synthetic product? 2. Discuss synthetic dyes as to (a) raw materials, (b) comparison with natural dyes. 3. Is a natural flavoring product preferable to the same product synthesized in the laboratory? Why or why not? 4. What types of products are obtained from coal tar? 5. How is acetylene obtained from coal? 6. List some of the important substances that can be prepared from acetylene. 7. What important products are obtained in the hydrogenation of coal?
UNIT IX SECTION 8 THE ALREADY VERY IMPORTANT PETROLEUM AND NATURAL-GAS INDUSTRY IS ABOUT TO ASSUME EVEN FAR GREATER IMPORTANCE AS A SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS FOR CREATIVE CHEMISTRY Introduction. The petroleum industry has come a long way since that day in 1859 when Colonel Drake drilled for oil in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The first modern use of petroleum was for the production of kerosene for lamps. Then the development of internal-combustion engines created the demand for motor fuels and lubricants. The increased demand for gasoline brought about many advances in petroleum refining, such as the cracking of gas oil so that the average yield of gasoline from petroleum has been increased from 18 per cent in 1914 to about 44 per cent in 1940. Modern automobiles have made necessary the production of new specialized lubricants and special hightest fuels. Through research and cooperation the petroleum industry has grown to a point where the social and economic structure of the United States has been built around one of its greatest natural resources, petroleum. The Petroleum Industry Is the Fifth Largest in the United States. The United States is the source of 66 per cent of the world's total petroleum production, and three quarters of the world's production is controlled by the Americas. Within its own borders, the United States has petroleum supplies adequate to meet every need, including synthetic rubber and high explosives. The total value of the products manufactured from petroleum in the United States in 1939 was about $2,500,000,000. In other portions of the world, fuels obtained from the hydrogenation of coal, and gases obtained from coal, wood, lignite, and coke have been insufficient to supplement petroleum fuels for internalcombustion engines. Automobiles, trucks, and buses have been 695