Man's physical universe

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NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC RUBBERS 707

2. Sponge Rubber. Sponge rubber made by vulcanization of

foamed-latex compositions is now used for mattresses and upholstering

furniture and automobile seats.

3. Chlorinated Rubber. Chlorine will combine with rubber to form

tough and horny resins which contain about 65 per cent chlorine.

These resins are very resistant to water, acids, bases, salts, and many

organic solvents and are finding wide application in the preparation

of corrosion-resistant paints, lacquers, and floor coverings and in

flameproofing textiles. "Paratex," "Parlon," and "Tornesite" are

typical chlorinated rubber products.

4. Rubber Hydrochloride. Hydrogen chloride combines with rubber

to form a moisture-resistant, flexible, shock-resisting material of

many uses. Under the name of "Pliofilm" it is now found in shower

curtains, raincoats, and protective covers for foods and other merchandise,

wherever low moisture and oxygen permeability,

with a high degree of flexibility and toughness, are desired.

together

5. Pliolite. "Pliolite" is a resin prepared by the cyclization of

rubber with stannic chloride or other similar compounds as catalysts.

It finds useful applications in the paint, lacquer, and moistureproofing

industry.

6. Rubber-metal Bonding Cement. Sulfonic acid or sulfonyl chlorides

react with rubber to form isomers of a lower degree of unsaturation

than rubber. Certain of these have been found to bond rubber

firmly to metal. A solution of the isomer is applied to the clean metal

surface, and the rubber is vulcanized in contact with it. This process

is known as the "Vulcalock" process. This is one method by which

tank cars, stationary tanks, and pipe are lined with rubber.

7. Kolok Fabrics. "Kolok" is the name of a fabric in which minute

bind the

particles of latex have been deposited in such a way as to

fibers together. These fabrics are said to wear twice as long, fit better,

appear neater, and resist shrinkage better than untreated fabrics.

Millions of pairs of silk hosiery have been given the Kolok treatment.

Some of the newer developments in the use of rubber are airplane

armor plate of laminated rubber and steel, self-sealing (and therefore

bulletproof) fuel tanks for airplanes, rubber printing plates which

save 25 per cent on ink and a considerable amount of time in printing.

The time saved through the use of rubber printing plates is in

the so-called "make ready." When printing from metal type, all

parts of the surface have to be carefully adjusted so that in printing

none of the type causes depressions in the paper. Because of its

flexibility, rubber will not cause depressions in the paper and "make

ready" time is greatly reduced.

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