Man's physical universe

xanabras

722 MAN'S PHYSICAL WELFARE

Sugars and other carbohydrates are compounds in which some

carbon atoms are in the first stage of oxidation, while others are in

the second stage of oxidation. Such compounds are therefore more

readily assimilated.

Sucrose May Soon Be Used as an Industrial Raw Material.

Recent research has shown that an excellent synthetic rubber can

be prepared from sugar as one of its basic raw materials. Sugar may

also be used to prepare adhesives and a very bitter substance (superoctacetate)

for use in denaturing alcohol.

Organic Acids Are Indirect Products of Photosynthesis.

Many fruits and vegetables contain organic acids, which give them

An organic acid always contains the carboxyl group,

their sour taste.

O

—C—OH, sometimes written, COOH.

organic acids are listed as follows:

Name

Formic acid

Acetic acid

Butyric acid

Palmitic acid

Stearic acid

Oxalic acid

Lactic acid

Malic acid

Tartaric acid

Citric acid

Oleic acid

H(COOH)

CHaCCOOH)

Formula

CsHtCCOOH)

CuHsiCCOOH)

CnHssCCOOH)

(COOH)—(COOH)

C2H4(OH)—(COOH)

(COOH)—CH2—CH(OH)-

(CHOH)o(COOH)2

C3H4(OH)(COOH)3

CnH33(COOH)

-(COOH)

Some of the more important

Source

Ants or stinging nettle

Alcoholic fermentation

(the acid of vinegar)

Present in rancid butter

Vegetable and animal fats

Vegetable and animal fats

Salts of this acid are found in

rhubarb

Sour milk

Apples, pears, and other fruits

Grapes and other fruits

Citrus fruits

Vegetable and animal oils

Lactic acid may be obtained from milk sugar (lactose), which occurs

in cow's milk to the extent of 5 per cent. The lactose from skim milk,

buttermilk, and whey amounts to a yearly production of 2,700,000,000

pounds. In 1938, 5,000,000 pounds of lactic acid were prepared from

lactose in the United States. It is used to acidulate various food products

including soft drinks, in dyeing, deliming of hides, vegetable

tanning, and to produce acrylic acid for the production of polymethyl

acrylate plastics, the so-called organic "glass" discussed in Section 6

of Unit IX.

Fats and Oils Are Also Indirect Products of Photosynthesis.

Plants are able to combine the soluble sugars with nitrogen-containing

substances obtained from the soil to forrti proteins.

Proteins furnish

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines