766 MAN'S PHYSICAL WELFARE 5. What is "Clorox"? Under what other names is this substance sold? How is it prepared? For what purpose is it used? 6. Why is glycerine a by-product of the soap industry? 7. What is the general composition of greases used for lubricatmg automobiles? 8. How do soaps remove dirt from clothes in the laundering process? 9. What is a detergent? Give an example. Why do detergents have detergent properties? 10. Name three members of the halogen family of elements, and give their sources and uses. 11. Show how a large chemical industry is the logical outgrowth of the electrolysis of common salt. 12. What products are now obtained on a large scale from ocean water? 13. Discuss the use of the three phosphates in the home. What factors determine the use of each? 14. What are the advantages of "soapless soaps"? 15. Discuss the occurrence and uses of borax.
UNIT X SECTION 6 CHEMISTRY HAS PROVIDED MANY WEAPONS FOR THE CONTROL OF DISEASE A sound mind in a sound body is a short, but full description of a happy state in this world. He that has these two, has little more to wish for; and he that wants either of them, will be but little the better for anything else. — Locke. Introduction. "What do you believe is the most important development chemistry can make for the welfare of mankind?" This question, addressed to 18,000 visitors to the Du Pont exhibit at the New York World's Fair, revealed that the contribution of chemistry to the checking of disease was mentioned more often than any other topic. In this Section, we shall discuss chemotherapy , i.e., the use of chemicals for the destruction of the microorganisms which cause disease. Chemotherapy Is a Powerful Weapon in the Treatment of Parasites of Human Beings. The small, one-cell animal, amoeba histolytica, is a common intestinal parasite which robs the body of its food, produces poisons, and even penetrates the liver, where it does irreparable damage. Only a few years ago emetine hydrochloride was the only remedy known, and it often made the patient very sick. It was a common statement that amoebic dysentery could never be cured. Within the past ten years, a number of substances such as "chiniofon" (Yatren), "vioform," and "carbosone" have been found to give excellent results in destroying intestinal amoebae, but they have to be used with discretion because of their toxic possibilities. Another intestinal parasite, the hookworm, may be destroyed by use of carbon tetrachloride or thymol. Plantlike Parasites Are So Common That Nearly Every Home Needs Chemicals to Destroy Them. There are numerous plantlike parasites that cause such diseases as impetigo, ringworm, and athlete's foot. Many substances have been 767