800 MAN'S PHYSICAL WELFARE According to ihc Swedish Society for the Study of the Social Consequences of World War I, the total cost in human lives must be estimated at 40,000,000. What these figures represent in lost genius, crippled bodies, suffering, and misery cannot be expressed. To this terrific cost must be added the legacy of hate which twenty years later bore the fruits of another deadly world conflict. This increasing cost of war can be attributed to Science. The modern age of industrialism and technology is the direct outgrowth of the impact of Science on civilization. These revolutionary forces have brought about economic warfare in the competition for raw materials and markets, thus sowing the seeds of warfare. The ruling motive of so many people of this age, that of profit at any cost, has been demonstrated by the actions of powerful international munitions-makers in fomenting war. At the same time Science, through technology, has furnished the machines of war and has made it possible to engage whole nations, soldiers and civilians, including women and children, in more deadly conflict than ever before. Science has also made it possible to bring about these terrible losses in a very short time. Conclusion. Science is equally important in war and peace. It provides means to kill or save the lives of mankind. It provides such weapons as hydrogen cyanide gas and electrocution to destroy harmful bacteria and insects, which are likewise used to put men to death. It provides explosives for great public works, agriculture, and mining; and yet these explosives may be used to destroy what man has created. Science provides man with greater possibilities for good and for evil but Science has nothing to do with than he has ever before realized, the choice between these motives. It merely makes the decision a more important and more pressing problem. Brotherly love and understanding are not merely desirable; they have been made necessary for the survival of civilization. The question is whether man's moral, ethical, or religious progress can keep up with his scientific If progress. these problems of humanity created by Science can be properly solved, this will be but another achievement of Science. It is believed by many people that the same method that was used to bring about the changes that caused these problems can also be used to solve them. Today such sciences as economics, sociology, and political science represent man's attempt to utilize the scientific method in the field of human relations. Social religion still furnishes the motive; but here, as in the other problems of man. Science must furnish the method.
THE PROGRESS OF CIVILIZATION 801 STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Criticize the statement, "The world would be better off if scientific research were discontinued for a time." 2. In what respects may it be said that the power of Science is poorly directed and imperfectly used by society today? 3. How can one insure that the power of Science is used for the welfare of man? 4. Robert A. Millikan predicted that "life fifty or a hundred years hence is not — barring a collapse of civilization — likely to differ nearly as much from the life to-day as this life differs from that of even half a century ago." Mark Sullivan said: "The things to come will probably be more marvelous and more numerous than those that have already arrived. For as to any kind of invention, there is a kind of law of geometrical progress." Which of the above statements seems most likely to be true to you? Which statement is probably truest for (a) the physical sciences, (b) the biological sciences, (c) the social sciences? 5. In what respects is the "fifth wheel" of an automobile the most important one? 6. Why is modern society an unstable equilibrium? 7. What have been the benefits of technology? 8. What problems have been created by technology? 9. What factors have been responsible for the distribution of wealth in the United States up until the past ten years? 10. Why have various groups of laborers and business men been organized in the United States? 11. List the experiments of the National Government in regional and national planning during the past decade. 12. List the achievements which have been accomplished under our democratic way of life. 13. What are the causes of war? 14. What were the expressed war aims of the democracies and the totalitarian states in World War II? 15. Discuss the cost of warfare to civilization. 16. Discuss the relative merits of the totalitarian and democratic approaches to the establishment of a lasting world-peace.