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atw 2018-03v6

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atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 3 ı March 148 Calendar 2018 CALENDAR 04.03.-09.03.2018 82. Jahrestagung der DPG. Erlangen, Germany, Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG), www.dpg-physik.de 11.03.-17.03.2018 International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC). Bariloche, Argentina, IYNC and WiN Global, www.iync.org/category/iync2018/ 26.03.-27.03.2018 Fusion energy using tokamaks: can development be accelerated? London, United Kingdom, The Royal Society, royalsociety.org 08.04.-11.04.2018 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants – ICAPP 18. Charlotte, NC, USA, American Nuclear Society (ANS), www.ans.org 08.04.-13.04.2018 11 th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry – MARC XI. Kailua-Kona, HI, USA, American Nuclear Society (ANS), www.ans.org 16.04.-19.04.2018 Einführung in die Kerntechnik. Mannheim, Germany, TÜV SÜD, nucleartraining@tuev-sued.de 16.04.-17.04.2018 VdTÜV Forum Kerntechnik – Sicherheit im Fokus. Berlin, Germany, VdTÜV mit Unterstützung des TÜV NORD, des TÜV SÜD und des TÜV Rheinland, www.tuev-sued.de/tagungen 17.04.-19.04.2018 World Nuclear Fuel Cycle 2018. Madrid, Spain, World Nuclear Association (WNA), www.world-nuclear.org 18.04.-19.04.2018 9. Symposium zur Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfälle. Vorbereitung auf KONRAD – Wege zum G2-Gebinde. Hanover, Germany, TÜV NORD Akademie, www.tuev-nord.de/tk-era 22.04.-26.04.2018 Reactor Physics Paving the Way Towards More Efficient Systems – PHYSOR 2018. Cancun, Mexico, www.physor2018.mx 08.05.-10.05.2018 29 th Conference of the Nuclear Societies in Israel. Herzliya, Israel. Israel Nuclear Society and Israel Society for Radiation Protection, ins-conference.com 13.05.-19.05.2018 BEPU-2018 – ANS International Conference on Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainties Methods. Lucca, Italy, NINE – Nuclear and INdustrial Engineering S.r.l., ANS, IAEA, NEA, www.nineeng.com/bepu/ 13.05.-18.05.2018 RadChem 2018 – 18 th Radiochemical Conference. Marianske Lazne, Czech Republic, www.radchem.cz 14.05.-16.05.2018 ATOMEXPO 2018. Sochi, Russia, atomexpo.ru 15.05.-17.05.2018 11 th International Conference on the Transport, Storage, and Disposal of Radioactive Materials. London, United Kingdom, Nuclear Institute, www.nuclearinst.com 20.05.-23.05.2018 5 th Asian and Oceanic IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection – AOCRP5. Melbourne, Australia, Australian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) and International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), www.aocrp-5.org 29.05.-30.05.2018 49 th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology AMNT 2018 | 49. Jahrestagung Kerntechnik. Berlin, Germany, DAtF and KTG, www.nucleartech-meeting.com 03.06.-07.06.2018 38 th CNS Annual Conference and 42 nd CNS-CNA Student Conference. Saskotoon, SK, Canada, Candian Nuclear Society CNS, www.cns-snc.ca 03.06.-06.06.2018 HND2018 12 th International Conference of the Croatian Nuclear Society. Zadar, Croatia, Croatian Nuclear Society, www.nuklearno-drustvo.hr 04.06.-07.06.2018 10 th Symposium on CBRNE Threats. Rovaniemi, Finland, Finnish Nuclear Society, ats-fns.fi 04.06.-08.06.2018 5 th European IRPA Congress – Encouraging Sustainability in Radiation Protection. The Hague, The Netherlands, Dutch Society for Radiation Protection (NVS), local organiser, irpa2018europe.com 06.06.-08.06.2018 2 nd Workshop on Safety of Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Garching near Munich, Germany, GRS, www.grs.de 25.06.-26.06.2018 index2018 – International Nuclear Digital Experience. Paris, France, Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire, www.sfen.org, www.sfen-index2018.org 27.06.-29.06.2018 EEM – 2018 15 th International Conference on the European Energy Market. Lodz, Poland, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP), www.eem18.eu 29.07.-02.08.2018 International Nuclear Physics Conference 2019. Glasgow, United Kingdom, www.iop.org 05.08.-08.08.2018 Utility Working Conference and Vendor Technology Expo. Amelia Island, FL, USA, American Nuclear Society (ANS), www.ans.org 22.08.-31.08.2018 Frédéric Joliot/Otto Hahn (FJOH) Summer School FJOH-2018 – Maximizing the Benefits of Experiments for the Simulation, Design and Analysis of Reactors. Aix-en-Provence, France, Nuclear Energy Division of Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) and Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), www.fjohss.eu 28.08.-31.08.2018 TINCE 2018 – Technological Innovations in Nuclear Civil Engineering. Paris Saclay, France, Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire, www.sfen.org, www.sfen-tince2018.org 05.09.-07.09.2018 World Nuclear Association Symposium 2018. London, United Kingdom, World Nuclear Association (WNA), www.world-nuclear.org 09.09.-14.09.2018 21 st International Conference on Water Chemistry in Nuclear Reactor Systems. San Francisco, CA, USA, EPRI – Electric Power Research Institute, www.epri.com 10.09.-13.09.2018 Nuclear Energy in New Europe – NENE 2018. Portoroz, Slovenia, Nuclear Society of Slovenia, www.nss.si/nene2018/ 17.09.-21.09.2018 62 nd IAEA General Conference. Vienna, Austria. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), www.iaea.org 17.09.-20.09.2018 FONTEVRAUD 9. Avignon, France, Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire (SFEN), www.sfen-fontevraud9.org 17.09.-19.09.2018 4 th International Conference on Physics and Technology of Reactors and Applications – PHYTRA4. Marrakech, Morocco, Moroccan Association for Nuclear Engineering and Reactor Technology (GMTR), National Center for Energy, Sciences and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN) and Moroccan Agency for Nuclear and Radiological Safety and Security (AMSSNuR), phytra4.gmtr.ma 30.09.-04.10.2018 TopFuel 2018. Prague, Czech Republic, European Nuclear Society (ENS), American Nuclear Society (ANS). Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Chinese Nuclear Society and Korean Nuclear Society, www.euronuclear.org 02.10.-04.10.2018 7 th EU Nuclear Power Plant Simulation ENPPS Forum. Birmingham, United Kingdom, Nuclear Training & Simulation Group, www.enpps.tech 14.10.-18.10.2018 12 th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety – NUTHOS-12. Qingdao, China, Elsevier, www.nuthos-12.org 14.10.-18.10.2018 NuMat 2018. Seattle, United States, www.elsevier.com 16.10.-17.10.2018 4 th GIF Symposium at the 8 th edition of Atoms for the Future. Paris, France, www.gen-4.org 22.10.-24.10.2018 DEM 2018 Dismantling Challenges: Industrial Reality, Prospects and Feedback Experience. Paris Saclay, France, Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire, www.sfen.org, www.sfen-dem2018.org 22.10.-26.10.2018 NUWCEM 2018 Cement-based Materials for Nuclear Waste. Avignon, France, French Commission for Atomic and Alternative Energies and Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire, www.sfen-nuwcem2018.org 24.10.-25.10.2018 Chemistry in Power Plant. Magdeburg, Germany, VGB PowerTech e.V., www.vgb.org 05.11.-08.11.2018 International Conference on Nuclear Decommissioning – ICOND 2018. Aachen, Eurogress, Germany, achen Institute for Nuclear Training GmbH, www.icond.de Calendar

atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 3 ı March Russian Nuclear Energy Technologies for the Development of the Arctic Andrej Yurjewitsch Gagarinskiy Small nuclear facilities have become an integral part of two important areas of human activities, namely, they are the basis of nuclear ships and scientific/educational research reactors that are in fact the main training facilities for new nuclear specialists all over the world. However, despite great and justified expectations of their developers, small nuclear power plants (SNPPs), with their obvious advantages (compared to conventional energy sources) in hardlyaccessible areas, have not yet managed to start playing a notable role in the power industry. This is also completely true as concerns the task of using nuclear technologies for the development of the Arctic, where only the nuclear ship propulsion can be considered as an accomplished technology [1]. 1 Civil nuclear ships Russia is the world’s only country that has civil nuclear ships in operation. Nuclear shipbuilding experience of other countries (Savannah, 1962–1979, USA; Otto Hahn, 1968–1980, FRG; and Mutsu, 1974 –1991, Japan) was relatively brief. Plans to construct nuclear icebreakers repeatedly declared by countries such as USA, Canada, Argentina and China are still just intentions. Table 1 presents both the past (starting from the world’s first nuclear icebreaker Lenin) and the present of Russia’s civil nuclear fleet, which is intended exclusively for the development of the country’s Arctic regions. Currently the Russian civil nuclear shipbuilding is resurging. To timely replace the existing icebreakers to enable reliable continuous navigation and year-round delivery of goods via the Northern Sea Route, the government in the summer of 2011 has decided to build and launch three universal nuclear icebreakers: the pilot one in 2017 and two serial ones in 2019 and 2020, respectively. The pilot icebreaker’s keel was laid at the Baltic Plant in 2013. The Iceberg Design Bureau has developed a detailed design of a nuclear icebreaker with improved icebreaking capability and variable draught (from 10.5 m in deep waters to 8.5 m in shallow ones). This variable draught would allow this icebreaker to operate not only in Arctic seas, but also in the mouths of northern rivers. The new nuclear facility – RITM-200 – developed by OKBM Afrikantov for this icebreaker includes two integral PWRs of 175 MWth each; its lifetime makes up to 40 years and its period of continuous operation is 26,000 hours. Icebreaker parameters are: displacement – 23,000 t; length – 172.2 m, width – 33 m, height – 15 m, speed – 22 knots. This ship – that would allow for up to 6 months of independent sailing – is intended for operation in the Western Arctic (Barents Sea, Pechora Sea, Kara Sea, mouth of the Yenissei and the Ob Bay region). This pilot icebreaker Arktika (Figure 1), already afloat, is currently under construction at the Baltic Plant, as well as two serial icebreakers of the same design, Sibir (Arktika’s successor on the berth) and Ural (keel laid). As by late 2017, their commissioning was expected between 2019 and 2021. | | Fig. 1. Launching of the new Arktika, 2016. Revised version of a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2017), Berlin. 149 ENERGY POLICY, ECONOMY AND LAW Ship Year of commissioning Power facility Current status Lenin 1959 2 OK-900 reactors, 32.4 MW (44,000 hp) Arktika 1975 2 reactors, 55 MW (75,000 hp) Decommissioned in 1989 Museum since 2010 Decommissioned in 2008 Sibir 1977 same Decommissioned in 1992 Sent for disposal in 2016 Rossiya 1985 same Decommissioned in 2013 Sovetsky Soyuz 1989 same Decommissioned in 2010 Restoration being considered Yamal 1989 2 OK-900A reactors In operation Taymyr 1989 KLT-40 reactor, 36.8 MW (50,000 hp.) In operation Vaygach 1990 same In operation 50 Let Pobedy 2007 2 reactors, 55 MW (75,000 hp) In operation Sevmorput (LASH) 1988 29.4 MW (39,000 hp) In operation (restored in 2013–2015 | | Tab. 1. Russian civil nuclear fleet. Energy Policy, Economy and Law Russian Nuclear Energy Technologies for the Development of the Arctic ı Andrej Yurjewitsch Gagarinskiy