atw 2018-03v6

inforum

atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 3 ı March

Design Refueling interval, years Lifetime, years Development stage

ABV-6 10–12 50 – Pilot reactor and NPP unit Volnolom – detailed design (1993)

– FNPP for the Far North – feasibility study

– Nuclear co-generation plant for Kazakstan – feasibility study

– Pilot bench – in operation

KLT-40S 2.5–3 40* – Equipment for two reactors – supplied to the

FNPP Akademik Lomonosov

RITM-200 4.5–5 40* – Two reactors for the pilot universal icebreaker – preparation

for complete shipment (2016)

– Reactors for the next two icebreakers – scheduled supply

in 2018 and 2019, respectively

VBER-300 1.5–2 60 – NPP with two VBER-300 units – quotation (2002)

– VBER-300 reactor facility – conceptual design (2004)

– VBER-300 units for Kazakhstan – detailed design (2007–2009)

VBER-600 1.5–2 60 – 100 – 600 MW capacity range – concept (2007–2008)

– NPP with VBER-460/600 – R&D (2008–2012)

* – allows for extension to 60 years

| | Tab. 2.

SMR designs under development.

our country. President of the Russian Federation has approved

the “Fundamentals of the Russian State Policy in

the Arctic to 2020 and beyond” (2008) and the “Strategy of

the Russian Arctic Zone Development and National

Security Assurance to 2020” (2013). The following aspects

of the tasks to be solved should be emphasized: first, a

state-of-the-art computerized energy infrastructure should

be an integral part of the comprehensive socioeconomic

development of the Arctic. Second, many large-scale oil/

gas and other projects are now underway in the Arctic.

Third, long distances between – and unreliable energy

supplies to – local communities are a specific feature of the

Russian Arctic. Local conditions require a distributed

energy supply system, which should account for both

extreme operating conditions. On the whole, the Arctic

energy supply system consists of onshore and offshore

components. The latter are based on the practical

experience of efficient application of Russian shipbuilding

technologies…”

Indeed, Russian nuclear designers are experienced in

developing and operating ship reactors, both for the Navy

and for the civil fleet. Table 2 [5] lists the designs produced

by OKBM Afrikantov, the country’s leading developer of

small and medium reactors (6 – 600 MW).

Another well-known RD&D institute, NIKIET, has

developed a family of SNPPs with capacities ranging from

1 to 20 MWe, including facilities such as Shelf and Uniterm

of about 6 MWe each [6].

Developers of conventional stationary reactors also do

not lose hope to join the competition for entering the

future SNPP market. For example, VVER developers are

already offering an integral facility (VVER-I) of 100, 200

and 300 MW. This design is based on the natural circulation

of coolant, so it couples higher safety with compact

equipment, thus allowing for modular arrangement of the

NPP.

Another SNPP development line is presented by smaller

units of 0.5–1 MWe (5–10 MWt) that can be deployed on

the basis of unmanned autonomous thermoelectric power

plants.

Practical feasibility of this class of energy sources is

confirmed by the Kurchatov Institute’s experience in

constructing power facilities based on the direct

heat-to-electricity conversion. Romashka built in 1962 as a

pilot facility intended for space applications was the first

such facility in the world. In 1982, the Kurchatov Institute

has built and launched Gamma – a prototype thermoelectric

facility intended for ship applications [1] – which

| | Fig. 4.

Gamma – a prototype unmanned underwater power source

(launched in 1982).

has operated for many years and made it possible

to perform an exhaustive scope of studies and tests

(Figure 4).

In the mid-80ies, proceeding from the Gamma’s

successful operating experience, the design of Elena NPP

was developed in the framework of conversion programs.

This type of power facilities is based on the following three

cornerstones:

• water-water reactor with power self-regulation as a

heat source;

• heat removal by natural circulation of coolant in the

primary and secondary circuit;

• thermoelectric conversion of heat into electricity.

As a result, such facilities – whose technical feasibility is

now doubtless – offer considerable advantages compared

to those based on turbine energy conversion.

3 Nuclear technologies for the

development of the Arctic shelf

As concerns the Arctic shelf development, the Energy

Strategy of Russia to 2035 estimates the country’s

continental shelf to contain 90 billion tons of oil equivalent

(toe), including 16 billion tons of oil with condensate and

74 trillion m 3 of gas. About 70% of these resources find

themselves on the Barents, Pechora and Kara Sea shelves,

which together make about a half of the Russian Arctic

shelf. Experts forecast that by 2035 Russia will annually

produce up to 30 million tons of oil and 130 billion m 3 of

gas on its Arctic shelf.

The averaged total electricity demand by the hydrocarbon

production industry is estimated above 3 GW, so

ENERGY POLICY, ECONOMY AND LAW 151

Energy Policy, Economy and Law

Russian Nuclear Energy Technologies for the Development of the Arctic ı Andrej Yurjewitsch Gagarinskiy

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