atw 2018-03v6

inforum

atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 3 ı March

144

ABSTRACTS | ENGLISH

The Nuclear Option:

Can this Be Africa’s Energy Future?

NucNet | Page 146

There are worldwide 448 commercial nuclear

reactors in operation today, but only two of them, at

Koeberg, in Africa. Yet if ambitious policymakers

have their way, that could change. For the first time,

many African countries have expressed an interest

in developing nuclear power for peaceful energy

generation. According to the IAEA, more than 30

member states are considering or preparing nuclear

power programmes for the first time, a third of them

in Africa. One thing does seem certain. If Africa

starts to commission new nuclear reactors, China

and Russia, and their affiliated state-run enterprises,

will be at the front of the queue to provide

the technology. Scott Firsing, an international

relations and security expert focusing on foreign

power involvement in Africa, says their interest is

linked to the projection of strategic power and

investment into Africa, but also to secure access to

uranium reserves.

Russian Nuclear Energy Technologies

for the Development of the Arctic

Andrej Yurjewitsch Gagarinskiy | Page 149

Small nuclear facilities have become an integral

part of two important areas of human activities,

namely, they are the basis of nuclear ships and

scientific/educational research reactors that are in

fact the main training facilities for new nuclear

specialists all over the world. However, despite

great and justified expectations of their developers,

small nuclear power plants (SNPPs), with their

obvious advantages (compared to conventional

energy sources) in hardly-accessible areas, have not

yet managed to start playing a notable role in the

power industry. This is also completely true as

concerns the task of using nuclear technologies for

the development of the Arctic, where only the

nuclear ship propulsion can be considered as an

accomplished technology. Russia is the world’s only

country that has civil nuclear ships in operation.

U.S. Regulators Reject Proposal to Subsidize

Nuclear and Coal Power Prices

Jay R. Kraemer | Page 152

On January 8, 2018, the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory

Commission (“FERC”) unanimously rejected

a rulemaking proposed by Secretary of Energy Rick

Perry designed to enable the owners of coal and

nuclear power plants to charge higher prices for

their output, and thereby to prevent further premature

retirements of such plants. The FERC has

exclusive authority, under the Federal Power Act, to

establish rules for interstate wholesale sales of

electricity. Although the FERC simultaneously initiated

a new proceeding to consider how to enhance

the resilience of electricity supply and delivery in

the U.S., that proceeding seems unlikely to offer

near-term relief to nuclear plants that are approaching

closure due to their inability to compete economically

both with facilities fueled by low-priced

natural gas and with renewable power sources

benefitting from favorable tax provisions. Accordingly,

the American nuclear power industry will

probably have to look elsewhere for relief from its

present dire economic circumstances.

The Importance of Integration of Deterministic

and Probabilistic Approaches in the

Framework of Integrated Risk Informed

Decision Making in Nuclear Reactors

Mohsen Esfandiari, Kamran Sepanloo,

Gholamreza Jahanfarnia and Ehsan Zarifi | Page 154

Analysis of nuclear reactor accidents and transients

are very necessary for prediction of emergency

conditions, being used to control and respond to

extreme conditions. The nuclear accident investigation

and safety analysis have been performed by

either probabilistic or deterministic approaches. In

this paper, the recent investigations on combining

deterministic, probabilistic approaches and integrated

risk informed decision-making (IRIDM) are

reviewed in studying of events and making decisions

in nuclear reactors. Then, the importance of the

combined approaches for more comprehensive integrated

risk informed decisions making are presented.

By combination of both approaches and

using IRIDM, the analysis of nuclear accident can be

more realistic and, contrasting design basis accidents

(DBAs) and beyond design basis accidents

(BDBAs) with high accuracy is possible. Generally,

the IRIDM approach can confidently be used in

assurance of safety of any type of nuclear reactors.

Applied Reliability Assessment for the

Passive Safety Systems of Nuclear Power

Plants (NPPs) Using System Dynamics (SD)

Yun Il Kim and Tae Ho Woo | Page 158

The passive system by the free-fall is investigated in

the accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The

complex algorithm of the system dynamics (SD)

modeling is done in the passive cooling system. The

nuclear passive system by free-fall is successfully

modeled for the loss of coolant accident (LOCA).

Conventional passive system of gravity or natural

circulation is working only when the piping systems

is in the good condition. The external coolant

supply system is introduced in the case of the piping

system failure. The water is poured into the reactor

through the guiding piping or tube. If the explosion

happens, the coolants could be showering into the

reactor core and its building. New kind of passive

system is expected successfully in the on-site black

out where the drone could be operated by battery or

engine.

Studies on the Geometric Influence on Hard

Metal Shavers During Concrete Shaving

Simone Müller and Sascha Gentes | Page 163

Minimising contaminated waste is a top priority in

decommissioning projects in the nuclear sector. In

the area of building decontamination, efficient processing

of all affected concrete ceilings, walls and

floors is essential and quickly results in a surface

area of several thousand square metres to be processed.

Decontamination is mainly carried out by

using milling machines, e. g. rotary cultivators.

Within the scope of a research project (BMWI, ZIM,

funding code: KF2286004LL3) the project partners

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) and Contec

Maschinenbau & Entwicklungstechnik GmbH

(Alsdorf/Sieg) investigated the influence of the

geometry of the cutting tools on concrete removal.

This article shows results from the test program

conducted at the Institute for Technology and

Management in Construction (TMB) of the KIT,

Department of Deconstruction of Conventional and

Nuclear Structures.

The Technology of TVHTR-Nuclear-Power

Stations With Pebble Fuel Elements

Urban Cleve | Page 168

The German development of TVHTR Power Stations

was primarily initiated through the ideas of Prof. Dr.

R. Schulten. He developed this technology in the

1950's while employed by Brown Boveri. Dr. Schulten

became CTO at the new BBC/Krupp Reaktorbau

GmbH in Mannheim and later as Professor and Director

of KFA-Jülich Nuclear Research Department.

Two HTR nuclear power plants have been build in

Germany, comissioned and success fully operated:

The AVR in Jülich and the THRT-300 in Hamm-

Schmehausen. Well know seawater desalination

plants can be installed, working as distillation process

so as MSF (multi-stage-flash)-plant. The heat

would be supplied by HTR reactors. Additionally the

co-installation of solar plants is possible.

On the Rationality of the

German Nuclear Phase-out

Wolfgang Stoll | Page 178

Our state of mind appears to be in equilibrium when

it is balanced between opportunity and risk. The

relationship between individual expectations of

happiness and risk endured varies greatly depending

on the state of mind of the individual. It is

our understanding of ourselves that manageable

individual risks are more likely to be taken than

risks imposed by external forces. The anti-nuclear

protesters operate skillfully with this superextension

of the term to create general anxiety.

However, the problem is of a general nature. Classical

scientific findings come mainly from the field of

very high probability, which we simply describe as

the causal link between cause and effect. In general,

however, in the advance of our knowledge into ever

more complicated contexts, right down to the

so-called statistical “noise”, the connection between

cause and effect is becoming less and less clear. This

vagueness opens up a great deal of discretion.

Nuclear Power Plants:

2017 atw Compact Statistics

Editorial | Page 182

At the end of the last year 2017, nuclear power

plants were operating in 31 countries worldwide. In

total, 448 nuclear power plants were operating on

the key date. This means that the number declined

slightly by 2 units compared to the previous year’s

number on 31 December 2016. 3 units started

operation, 5 units stopped operation. The installed

nuclear capacity is still high that with 420 GWe

gross. 56 plants in 16 countries were under construction.

In addition, there are about 125 nuclear

power plant units in 25 countries worldwide under

development.

Could Our Nuclear Vision Benefit From

a Spell of Tesla Magic?

John Shepherd | Page 202

As I put the finishing touches to this latest article, US

entrepreneur and boss of the Tesla car giant, Elon

Musk, successfully launched a new rocket, the

Falcon Heavy, from the Kennedy Space Center in

Florida. What this has to do with nuclear today?

Technologically speaking nothing. But think ‘outside

the box’ – as I’m sure many of you have been told in

those corporate management-training classes. The

answer is: ‘vision’. The unabashed vision to be bold,

daring, imaginative. The vision to believe in technology

and to be unafraid to build on the experience

and knowledge gained to date, including the failures,

as we take the next steps forward.

Abstracts | English

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