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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

Those holders

Those holders of religious posts who do not follow any one of the four Madhhabs, e.g. the followers of Mawdûdî and Sayyid Qutb as well as those who call themselves “Salafiyya” but in essence follow the teachings of Ibn al-Taymiyya, are in the category of “ahl albid’at” mentioned above. One of the renowned Indian scholars, namely, Muftî Mahmûd bin Abdulgayyûr Pishâwurî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’, in his book Hujjat-ul-Islâm published in 1264 Hijrî [1848 A.D], presents the following Persian citation from the booklet Tuhfat-ul-’arab-i-wa-l-’ajam: It is wâjib for Muslims to adapt themselves to the teachings of mujtahids, for the forty-third âyat of Sûra Nahl and the seventh âyat of Sûra Anbiyâ purport: “... ask of those who possess the message;” and the hundredth âyat of Sûra Tawba purports: “The vanguard (of Islam) the first of those who forsook (their homes), (i.e. the Muhâjirîn), and of those who gave them aid, (i.e. the Ansâr), and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds: Well-pleased is Allâhu ta’âlâ with them, (as are they with Him).” These âyats command us to imitate them. When Muâz bin Jabal ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh’ was appointed as governor of Yemen, Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ asked him how he would manage the affairs of the people. He answered that he would make “Judgement” (Ijtihâd) and decide according to his understanding when he could not find a solution in the Qur’ân and in the hadîths. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ liked his answer very much and thanked Allâhu ta’âlâ much. Jalâluddin-i Suyûtî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ in his book Jazîl-ul-mawâhib informs that Ahmad Shihâbuddîn Qarâfî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ who was one of the “Mâlikî” scholars who lived in Egypt [he passed away in 684 Hijrî or 1285 A. D.] said, “There is unanimity (Ijmâ’) of scholars that a new Muslim must imitate any scholar he chooses.” As it is permissible for average Muslims to say that a certain hadîth-i-sherîf is sahîh if a scholar (imâm) of Hadîth has said that it is sahîh, likewise it is permissible for them to say that a certain religious judgement (rule) is sahîh (authentic) if a scholar of Fiqh has said that it is sahîh. [1] Similarly, it is permissible (jâiz) to repeat a judgment passed to them by the doctors of religious law (Fiqh Imâms) about the correctness of a problem of “Fiqh” (Masala), e.g., they may say, “such and such a problem ‘Masala’ is correct ‘sahîh’ or alternatively doing such and such deeds this way or that way is correct ‘sahîh’.” The fifty-eighth [1] Please see the sixth chapter of the second fascicle of Endless Bliss for kinds of hadîth-i-sherîf. – 112 –

âyat of Sûra Nisâ of the Qur’ân al-kerîm purports: “When you disagree on some religious matter, look for an answer in the Qur’ân and Sunnat of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’.” This commandment is directed to the “mujtahid” scholars. Ibn al-Hazm stated: “It is not permissible ‘halâl’ to follow or imitate anyone dead or alive. Every individual has to make his own ‘Ijtihad’! His statement is not a valid statement because he was not an “Ahl as-sunnat scholar”. [It is written at the end of our book Ashadd-ul-Jihâd that Ibn al-Hazm is a heretical person without a certain Madhhab.] It is necessary (wâjib) for a person who gives religious judgements (muftî) to be a “mujtahid”. It is forbidden (harâm) for a “muftî” who is not a “mutlaq mujtahid” to give judgment (fatwâ). But it is permissible for him to convey the earlier judgements. It is also not permissible to ask a new judgement from a “muftî” who is not a “Mutlaq Mujtahid”. The following is written in the chapter of fasting of the book Kifâya: It is not permissible for a person who is not a “mujtahid” to practice according to a hadîth he has heard. For, that hadîth might be one of those hadîths which needs explanation or one of the hadîths whose ruling has been invalidated (by other hadîth-i-sherîfs). Not so is the case with fatwâs (judgements). [In other words, a fatwâ is definitely authentic. There is no doubt about it and everyone has to follow the fatwâ.] Identical information on this subject exists in the book Taqrîr. Translation from the booklet Tuhfat-ul-’arab-iwa-l-’ajam ends here.] One of the causes of hatred is anger (ghadab). When a person gets angry but is not able to take revenge, his anger transforms itself into hatred. Anger is caused by increase in the movement of the blood [because of an increase in blood tension]. Anger for the sake of Allâhu ta’âlâ is a commendable deed. It emanates from one’s religious ghayrat. – 113 –

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