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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

sweet words, for

sweet words, for Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in hadîth-i-sherîf: “Allâhu ta’âlâ is always for soft-spokenness.” It is incumbent upon state authorities or police force to forcefully stop a person who commits prohibited actions. But beating him more than necessary or torturing would be oppression (zulm), which is a sinful act. In the absence of law officers or members of the government, a person powerful enough may stop the man. However, any legal action such as death sentence and house-demolition is only within the authority of the state and a judge of the state. A punishment heavier than deserved is zulm (injustice, cruelty). By the same token, it is harâm for state officials charged with amr-i-ma’rûf and nahy-i-munkar to inflict torture. The opposite of anger (ghadab) is softness (hilm). Softness is better than being able to overcome one’s anger. Softness means not to get angry at all. It is a sign of being very wise. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in the following hadîth-isherîfs: “Allâhu ta’âlâ loves those who act in softness in response to an incident which causes anger ‘ghadab’,” and “Allâhu ta’âlâ loves people who possess softness ‘hilm’, shame ‘hayâ’ and ‘iffat’. He dislikes those who speak dirty language ‘fuhsh’ and those beggars who solicit in a molesting manner.” “Iffat” means not to have an eye on others’ wealth. “Fuhsh” means dirty and ugly things. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ would repeat the following prayer often, “Oh my Lord! Bestow me, knowledge (’ilm), softness (hilm), piety (taqwâ), and ‘âfiyat’.” “Ilm al-nâfi’” embodies three branches of knowledge: Kalâm, Fiqh, and Akhlâq. “Âfiyat” means, in this prayer, to have the following five things: a faith and belief free of bid’ats; deeds and acts of worship free of disasters; a nafs free of (all sorts of) shahwa; a heart free of hawâ and waswasa; and a body free of illnesses. When they inquired from Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ which one single prayer was the best prayer, he replied, “Ask ‘âfiyat’ from Allâhu ta’âlâ. After îmân, there is no greater blessing than ‘âfiyat.” [One should make much repentance, i.e. say (a certain prayer termed) ‘istighfâr’ [1] in order to attain “âfiyat”.] Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “Be a person who has knowledge ‘’ilm’ and ‘sakîna!’ Speak softly while learning or teaching! Never boast about your knowledge!” [1] The prayer of istighfâr is: “Astaghfirullah al ’azim al-lazî lâ ilâha il-lâ huwa-l-hayal-qay-yûm wa atubu ilayh.” – 124 –

“Sakîna” means, having maturity and dignity. Rasûlullah ‘sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in the following hadîth-i-sherîfs: “The fire of Hell will not burn a person who lives compatibly with Islam and who is soft in nature,” and “Being soft brings blessings. Being slack or excessive in performing one’s duties or business causes a state of heedlessness ‘ghaflat’,” and “One who does not have softness ‘rifq’ is not a useful and beneficial person,” and “Softness ‘rifq’ embellishes or decorates a person and eliminates his deficiencies.” Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in another hadîth-i-sherîf: “Knowledge is acquired by studying and softness ‘hilm’ is acquired by striving and working hard to obtain it. Allâhu ta’âlâ will grant success to those who try to do useful and beneficial deeds. And He will protect those who avoid doing evil deeds.” 21– BREACH OF PROMISE (GHADR) One of the things that causes anger is to renege on one’s promise or word (ghadr). When a person promises something, it is called a promise (wa’d). If the promise is made by two people mutually, it is called “’ahd”. A promise (wa’d) which is emphasized with an oath is called “mîsâk”. When one of those who mutually promised something, e.g., made an agreement (’ahd), breaks the promise or agreement without informing the other party, he has committed “ghadr”. For example, if the leader of a state of a country perceives or understands that he has to break the peace agreement with a neighboring country of disbelievers, it is necessary (wâjib) for him to inform them. It is not permissible (jâiz) to break the peace agreement without informing them first. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “He who commits ghadr will pay for it severely during the Judgement day (Qiyâmat).” Committing ghadr is forbidden. Keeping an agreement (’ahd) made with disbelievers is necessary. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-isherîf: “An untrustworthy person does not possess belief. A person who breaks his agreement ‘’ahd’ does not possess a religion.” This hadîth-i-sherîf points out that those who abuse others’ trust do not have mature belief and those who do not treat this matter with due importance will lose their belief. – 125 –

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