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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

e a sin if one is not

e a sin if one is not able to fulfill a promise that one has given with the intention of fulfilling it.” According to the teachings of Hanafî and Shâfi’î scholars ‘rahimahumullâhu ta’âlâ’, it is makrûh to break a mutual agreement (’ahd) without any ’udhr, (i.e. an excuse or reason which Islam justifies), and it is permissible to do so if you have an ’udhr. Yet, in case you intend to break it ’ahd, it is necessary (wâjib) to inform the involved party. According to the teachings of Hanbalî scholars ‘rahimahumullâhu ta’âlâ’, it is wâjib to fulfil a promise. Not fulfilling it is forbidden (harâm.) It is taqwâ to perform something in a manner sanctioned (sahîh) by all four Madhhabs. It is wâjib for every Muslim to love all the other Muslims being in any one of the four Madhhabs, to invoke blessings on them all, and to avoid all sorts of bigotry concerning the (four) Madhhabs. However, all scholars are unanimous on that a talfîq of four Madhhabs is not permissible. Talfîq means (making) a selection of the easiest ways in all four Madhhabs in the performance of a certain deed or act of worship. The deed performed thereby is null and void in all four Madhhabs. However, acts of worship performed by unifying all the ruhsats (easiest ways) of a certain Madhhab, is sahîh (valid). [To perform a certain act of worship or a certain deed, a Muslim should first intend to follow the rules of one of the four Madhhabs and then act in accordance with those rules. Each of the four Madhhabs teaches an easy way, which is termed ‘ruhsat’, and a difficult way called ‘’azîmat’, of performing a certain deed. It is better for a healthy and capable person to prefer the difficult way (’azîmat), for doing something difficult is more unbearable, more distressful, and more enervative to the nafs. Worship was commanded for the purpose of suppressing and sapping the human nafs, which is inimical both to its human owner and to its Creator, Allâhu ta’âlâ. It has to be kept under an adamant repression, thereby to prevent it from surfeiture. Yet, absolute destruction of it is impracticable, for it serves the body. It is an idiotic and ignorant servant. A weak or ailing person or a person who is in a difficult position ought to utilize the easier way (ruhsat) rather than give up worship or performance of deeds. In fact, if it is practically impossible to do a certain act of worship even by utilizing the facilities (ruhsats) in one’s own Madhhab, it is permissible to imitate one of the other three Madhhabs, thus utilizing the facilities presented in that Madhhab.] – 128 –

24– TO HAVE A BAD OPINION ABOUT OTHERS (SÛ-I ZAN) To presume that one’s sins will not be forgiven means to commit sû-i-zan against Allâhu ta’âlâ. And to presume that all Believers are sinners, means to commit sû-i-zan against Believers (Mu’mins). “Sû-i zan” is a forbidden (harâm) act. A dislike taken against someone upon seeing him committing a prohibited action or learning that he has committed prohibited actions would not be “sû-i zan”; instead, it is a dislike taken for the sake of Allâhu ta’âlâ (bughd al-fillâh); it generates thawâb (rewards in the Hereafter). When a Muslim sees another Muslim (brother) doing something wrong, he should try to interpret it in a good manner (husn al-zan) and should try to save him from doing that action again. A negative thought that comes to the heart but does not stay there for long would not be a “sû-i zan”. Developing a strong thought in the heart in a negative way would be “sû-i zan”. The twelfth âyat of Sûra “Hujurât” in the Qur’ân al-kerîm purports: “O ye who believe! Avoid suspicion as much (as possible); for suspicion in some cases is a sin: ...” Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allahu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “Do not have ‘sû-i zan’. ‘Sû-i zan’ causes incorrect decisions. Do not pry into others’ private affairs. Overlook others’ faults. Do not argue with others. Do not be jealous of others. Do not have animosity against one another. Do not backbite one another. Love one another like brothers. A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim. Therefore, a Muslim will not despotize another Muslim; he will help him. He will not look down on him.” It is forbidden (harâm) for one Muslim to kill another Muslim. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “A Muslim does not attack another Muslim’s self, property or honor. Allâhu ta’âlâ does not look at strength or beauty of your bodies. He does not look at your deeds, either. But He looks at your hearts.” Allâhu ta’âlâ looks at the sincerity and fear of Allah in the hearts. In order for deeds and worships to be accepted, i.e., rewards (thawâbs) to be given, they have to be done with close attention to their necessary conditions and a proper intention, i.e., for the sake of Allâhu ta’âlâ (ikhlâs). It would be ilhâd, (i.e. profanity which causes one to go out of Islam,) to claim that an act of “worship which is sahîh is acceptable regardless of intention.” A person who says so is zindiq (heretic). The statement, “Allâhu ta’âlâ will look at your hearts. He will accept anything done with a good – 129 –

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