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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

the things that should

the things that should be avoided, i.e., prohibited actions and vices. The things we should not do (prohibited actions) are committed either with a particular organ or with the entire body. The following eight organs are very well known for committing sins: spiritual heart, ears, eyes, tongue, hands, stomach, sexual organs, and feet. The spiritual heart (qalb) is a spiritual grace blown upon the material heart of human beings. It is incorporeal, not made of matter, like the soul. These organs themselves do not commit the sin. The sensing power of these organs commits the sin. Anyone who wants to attain happiness in this world and the next must prevent these organs from committing sins. The spiritual heart has to be developed into a state wherein not committing sins will be its natural habit (malaka). Anyone who can achieve this state is called Allah-fearing (muttaqî) or pious (sâlih) person. He has now attained Allâhu ta’âlâ’s love and approval and become Walî [1] to Him. It would also be piety [taqwâ] to avoid sins by exerting yourself without its becoming the heart’s natural habit. Yet being a Walî reguires its being a natural habit not to commit sins, which in turn requires purifying the heart. And to purify the heart requires obedience to the rules of Islam. Islam consists of three parts: knowledge (’ilm), practice (’amal), and sincerity (ikhlâs). (1) To learn the knowledge teaching the commandments, i.e., Fards, Wâjibs, Sunnats, and forbidden actions (harâms and makrûhs), (2) To practise them in accordance with this knowledge, and (3) To do them only for the sake of Allâhu ta’âlâ. The Qur’ân al-kerîm commands and praises all these three parts. In this book, we will only communicate those sins that are to be abstained from in order to cleanse the heart. They are called vices, unethical behavior, or immoral acts. UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR OR IMMORALITY AND ITS REMEDY A Muslim as a first priority should strive to cleanse his (spiritual) heart because heart is the leader of the body and all organs are under its command. Our Prophet Muhammad ‘sall- Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ once said: “There is a piece of flesh in the human body. If this is good, all the organs will be good. If this [1] Walî (pl. Awliyâ) means a person close and beloved to Allâhu ta’âlâ. – 12 –

is evil, all the organs will be evil. This piece of flesh is the heart.” What is described in this hadîth is not the physical heart but the spiritual heart which is located in the physical heart. The goodness of the flesh, as explained above, means its being cleansed from vices and its assimilation of good morals (virtues). The physical appearance of a human being is called (khalq). The power or state that exists in the heart is called habits (khulq). Vices in the heart are called “maladies of the heart” or unacceptable morals (akhlâq al-zamîma). Their cure is a very difficult task. Correct treatment requires extremely sophisticated knowledge about the maladies and correct methodology to apply this knowledge. Habits are the faculties (malakas) or states or desires in the heart. It is this power in the spiritual heart which generates man’s belief, words, actions. His optional behaviour also is the work of (this power which is called his) khulq. Changing or transforming the state of the heart from undesirable, unwanted, unacceptable morals or habits to desirable, good habits is possible. Our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ once said, “Improve your morals (habits or character).” Islam does not contain commandments that cannot be accomplished. Experiences also show that this is the case. [Experience is only one of the three true-knowledgeacquirement methods. The other two true-knowledgeacquirement-methods are understanding through calculation and information passed to us by our Prophet.] Human beings do not share equal abilities to correct their unacceptable, deficient morals. Origin or source or fountain of morals is three powers inherent in the human soul. The first one is the power of understanding (comprehension) of the soul. This is also called “nutq” or wisdom (’aql). The first and second powers of “nutq” are theoretical knowledge (hikmat al-nazarî) and practical knowledge (hikmat al-’amalî) respectively. Theoretical knowledge which exists in average proportions is called reason (hikmat). Reason is the power that differentiates between virtue and vice; right and wrong; and good and evil. A state of excess in this power is termed jarbaza (the state of being a wiseacre). A person who suffers from this excess tries to understand things beyond comprehension. For example, he tries to interpret verses of the Qur’ân with hidden or metaphorical meanings (mutashâbîh âyats) or talks about fate and destiny or occupies himself with futile pursuits such as deceit, trickery, and sorcery. Conversely, inadequacy of this power is – 13 –

  • Page 1 and 2: Hakikat Kitabevi Publications No: 1
  • Page 3 and 4: ETHICS OF ISLAM PREFACE Let’s sta
  • Page 5 and 6: Kâshifî of Hirat. We translated t
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  • Page 33 and 34: The third reason why one wants to a
  • Page 35 and 36: much for him. When some of the Sah
  • Page 37 and 38: “furu”) of Imâm a’zam Abû H
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    man’s will power but it is His Di

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    12- CONCEIT (KIBR) The twelfth mala

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    from the Wrath of Allâhu ta’âl

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    others’ rights will enter Paradis

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    sashay around, his skirts sweeping

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    as long as they do not intermingle

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    oasting will lead them to Hell. In

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    introduce this way of happiness and

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    sal-lam’. If the heart, soul and

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    was Imâm Ahmad bin Hanbal ‘rahim

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    perpetrated iniquities which no one

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    and thus provided opportunity for t

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    as-sunnat scholars” or trusts whi

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    school in their childhood; nor afte

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    A poem: To be happy all the time, T

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    hadîth-i-sherîf incidentally serv

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    epresented others by proxy as well

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    Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alai

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    categories are not recorded by the

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    disquietude and a heart palpitating

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    not possess. Giving advice (nasîha

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    two Muslims meet each other, it is

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    the sins he will accumulate will be

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    inclusive. It cannot confined into

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    Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alai

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    âyat of Sûra Nisâ of the Qur’

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    neither proper nor permissible for

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    ‘alaihis-salâm’ knew that the

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    ta’âlâ will love, protect and h

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    mature people and those over fifty

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    person who tells us something. Amon

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    “Sakîna” means, having maturit

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    indeed they will not even have any

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    partner that He will accept any pra

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    to bed, hungry. They intended to fa

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    the sight of Allâhu ta’âlâ dec

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    27- SYMPATHY FOR FÂSIQS A person w

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    head. It is learned from the words,

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    prayer called namâz [1] in jamâ

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    instigation. If there is no one in

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    associate with anyone. If one under

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    Ghazâlî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’â

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    and their relationships to each oth

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    eings causes one to believe Him and

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    instead of Abdulqâdir, or “Hasso

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    specific meanings, awareness of the

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    Derivation); Ma’ânî (Meanings,

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    a person who commits venial sins as

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    attery, extortion or theft; or perp

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    ackbiting. If it is possible to sto

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    The thirty-first âyat-i-kerîma of

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    not to be deceived by their lies, s

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    prayers. We are informed that one w

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    instead of prayers that are sunnat

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    the Qur’ân al-kerîm in a state

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    teasing Allâhu ta’âlâ.” Maki

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    medîna, or social manners. As is s

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    things will attain the consent and

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    According to what suitable nature d

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    supplementary information. Every br

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    perceived through sense organs and

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    in the grave, none of the cells or

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    some materials which are similar to

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    comprehended are stored in imaginat

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    At many places in the Qur’ân, Ha

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    or elements are divided into three

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    waste. There is no waste of space i

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    more of a beast physically. A perso

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    Lusts of the nafs have nothing In c

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    Belief in Allâhu ta’âlâ and a

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    world have likenesses in that world

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    combination of chastity, wisdom, an

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    concentrated their efforts to subor

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    11- Riqqat: Not worrying about the

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    meant to do so. A reaction even bet

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    obligatory worships which are the f

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    for the believer; he also will be a

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    Rising Day by way of an assessment

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    they abandoned Islam. The fact, how

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    2- Vice which looks like chastity:

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    knowledge in favour of attacking, a

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    men. Justice means harmony and equa

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    Confessions of A British Spy, one o

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    AN IMPORTANT NOTE: First of all, on

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    worship is absolutely incumbent on

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    Him. Everyone can follow different

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    We should not spread gossip (carry

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