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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

a scholar, He receives a

a scholar, He receives a promise from him as He did with prophets.” He (’âlim) promises that he will not refrain from stating what he knows when it is necessary. The following hadîthi-sherîf and âyat-i-kerîma show that compromising the religion, i.e., doing mudâhana is prohibited (harâm): “If one does not say the knowledge given to him by Allâhu ta’âlâ when the situation requires him to speak out, they will put a collar made of fire on his neck on the day of Qiyâmat.” The thirty-sixth âyat-i-kerîma of Sûra Nisâ of the Qur’ân al-kerîm purports: “Should those who are endowed with true knowledge and guidance hide the bounty, may they be steeped in condemnation, both from Allâhu ta’âlâ and from all those who themselves have already incurred condemnation!” The opposite of mudâhana is ‘ghayrat’, or ‘salâbat’. The fifty-fourth âyat-i-kerîma of Sûra Mâida of the Qur’ân al-kerîm purports: “... people making jihâd in the way of Allâhu ta’âlâ, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. ...” This âyat-i-kerîma informs us that it is necessary for those who have religious “ghayrat” and “salâbat” to make jihâd by using their property, life, speech and penmanship for the sake of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in another hadîth-i-sherîf: “Tell the truth even if it is extremely bitter.” A ‘zâhid’ person saw a group playing musical instruments in the presence of the fourth Umayyad Caliph Marwân bin Hakem, and broke their instruments to pieces. Thereupon Marwân ordered that he should be shut in with the lions. Among the lions, he presently began to perform namâz. The lions came by him and began to lick him. So the guards took him back to the caliph. When the caliph asked him if he had not been afraid of the lions, he answered, “No. Fear of them did not even occur to me. I spent the entire night pondering.” “What did you ponder about?” “When the lions licked me, I pondered on whether their saliva was najs, (i.e. canonically foul to nullify the prayer termed namâz); I pondered on whether Allâhu ta’âlâ would accept my prayer.” [Marwân bin Hakem was killed in 65 hijrî “683 A.D.”.] If a person is not able to do Amr al-ma’rûf and Nahy anil munkar because of his fear that his and others’ security might be undermined, keeping quiet in order not to raise instigation in this situation is called “doing mudârâ,” which is permissible, and even blessed enough to produce the thawâb deserved for almsgiving, provided that his heart should be willing to stop the harâm being committed. Mudârâ should be done mildly and with a smiling face. Mudârâ can also be exploited as a teaching method. Imâm – 146 –

Ghazâlî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ stated: “There are three groups of mankind. The first group are like nutrition. They are necessary for everyone at all times. The second group are like medicine. They are needed at times of necessity. The third group are like diseases. They are not needed but they annoy other people. Such people ought to be handled with mudârâ for security’s sake.” Mudârâ is a permissible method. In fact, it is mustahab in some cases. Management of home affairs done without mudârâ towards the wife may cost a man a peaceful family life. Someone came to visit Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’. He said, “Let him come in. He is a lowly person.” When the visitor came in, he spoke with him in a soft and sweet manner. After he left, they asked him as to why he talked to him sweetly. He said, “The person who will be in the worst place in the next world ‘Âkhirat’ is the one who is offered honors or gifts in order to secure your self from his harm in the world.” It is stated in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “Even though it is permissible to talk behind people who commit harâms frankly and without feeling any shame, it is equally justifiable to treat them with mudârâ for protection against their harm. However, mudârâ should not be watered down into mudâhana.” Mudârâ entails relinquishing some worldly interests for the sake of protecting religious and worldly values against harm. Mudâhana, by contrast, means to compromise your religious values in return for worldly advantages. Mudârâ employed against a tyrant should not be contaminated with a praisal of the tyrant or an approval of his tyrannies. – 147 –

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