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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

hyperbolical casuistry

hyperbolical casuistry that the Qur’ân al-kerîm comprises an inner essence as well as a façade with respect to meanings; as well as those who immure their manipulations under the name of tafsîr into the socio-regional and temporal insularity of their semantic repertoires. One of the Ottoman scholars, Nuh bin Mustafa Konawi ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’, who passed away in 1070 hijrî, 1660 A.D. in Cairo, Egypt makes the following remarks in his translation of the book Milal wa Nihal, which was written by Muhammad Shihristânî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’: People who are in “Ismâ’îliyya” group are called as such because they say that they are the followers of Ismâ’îl, ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’, who was the elder son of the Ja’far as-Sadiq, ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’. They are also called “Bâtiniyya” group, because they say that Qur’ân alkerîm has an inner meaning (bâtin) as well as a literal meaning. They say that the literal meanings in the Qur’ân al-kerîm are the limited meanings which have been clichéd by “Fiqh” scholars and the inner meaning of the Qur’ân al-kerîm is like an endless ocean. They Believed in their own fabrications in the name of the inner meanings instead of following the literal meanings of the Qur’ân al-kerîm. In point of fact, what the Messenger of Allah ‘sall- Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ taught was the literal meanings. Leaving the literal meanings aside and following fabricated inner meanings causes disbelief. Their falsification is intended to destroy Islam from within. Fire worshippers (Majûsî), especially their leader Hamdan Qurmut, in order to stop the spreading of Islam, invented these tricks and established Qarâmuta State. He killed people who were making pilgrimage (hajj) to “Kâ’ba” and moved the “Hajar al-aswad” from “Kâ’ba” to Basra. They fabricated such sayings as, “Jannat means to pursue worldly pleasures and Hell means to obey Islam’s principles.” They named Islam’s prohibitions fine arts. Disguising what Islam calls immorality and indecency as moral recreation, they misguided younger generations into perdition. The harm which their State caused to Islam was irreparable. Incurring the Divine Wrath, they had their nemesis in 372 hicrî (983 A.D.), and perished once and for all.] Tafsîr should be done in accordance to the principles of transmission (naql). To perform Tafsîr, one should be learned in the following fifteen Islamic Sciences: Lughat (Lexicology); Nahw and Sarf (Grammar and Syntax); Ishtiqaq (Etymology, – 156 –

Derivation); Ma’ânî (Meanings, Semantics); Bayân (Explanation, Phraseology); Badi’ (Figures of Speech); Qirâ’at (Reading or Reciting the Qur’ân al-kerîm); Usûl-i-dîn (Religious Methodology); Fiqh (Knowledge pertaining to acts of worship and deeds); Asbâb-i-nuzûl (Events and causes which occasioned the revelation of âyat-i-kerîmas); Nâsikh and Mansûkh (âyat-ikerîmas which invalidated others and those which they invalidated); Usûl-i-fiqh (Methodology employed in the science of Fiqh); Hadîth; and ’Ilm-i-qalb (Science dealing with the spiritual heart). It is not permissible for a person who is not learned in these sciences to attempt a tafsîr of the Qur’ân alkerîm. The knowledge of spiritual heart (Qalb)” or “Mawhiba” is a kind of knowledge which Allâhu ta’âlâ sends without an intermediary to pious scholars who follow Islam minutely. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-isherîf: “If a person practises what he knows, Allâhu ta’âlâ will teach him what he does not know.” Tafsîr is not a practice permissible for a person who is not learned in the aforesaid fifteen sciences. An attempt to explain âyat-i-kerîmas without a preliminary education in these sciences would yield some personal views under the cloak of tafsîr, which in turn is an act incurring fire of Hell. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “If a person spends forty days (running) in a state obedient to Islam’s principles with ikhlâs, Allâhu ta’âlâ will fill his heart with hikmat, and he will say (this hidden knowledge called) hikmat.” To interpret mutashâbih (metaphorical) âyat-i-kerîmas is equivalent to presenting one’s personal views in the name of tafsîr. It is this kind of tafsîr which holders of bid’at claim to have been accomplishing. The Qur’ân al-kerîm contains three kinds of knowledge. The first kind is the knowledge which Allâhu ta’âlâ did not impart to any of His slaves. The true essence of His Dhât (Person) and His Attributes, and knowledge of (what we term) ghayb exemplify this category. The second kind is the secret knowledge He revealed to His prophets. Prophets ‘alaihim-us-salawât-u-wa-ttaslîmât’ may reveal this knowledge to those whom Allâhu ta’âlâ chooses. He taught the third type of knowledge to His prophets ‘alaihim-us-salawât-u-wa-t-taslîmât’ and ordered them to teach this knowledge to all their Ummat. The third type is divided into two sections. The first one is learned only by hearing. Knowledge about Doomsday (Qiyâmat) is of this kind. The second one is learned by observing, examining, reading and understanding its – 157 –

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