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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

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sin of postponing the obligatory duties will start again and as time passes it will increase many folds. Postponing the performance is a grave sin. Everybody should understand this point clearly. The hadîth-i-sherîf, “The sins of a person who performs “hajj al-mabrûr” will be forgiven. He will be like a new born,” includes sins other than the sin incurred by omitting the obligatory duties and sins incurred by violating others’ rights. The invocations which Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ offered at (the sacred place called) Muzdalifa on the night of (the day previous to ’Iyd of Qurbân and called) Arefa for the forgiveness of (Muslim pilgrims called) hadjis is reported to have been of this capacity. There are also scholars who stated that the sins earned by not performing the obligatory duties and sins earned by violating others’ rights are also included in the forgiveness. Their statements concern those who make tawba but who are physically unable to perform those “fards” or unable to compensate the violated rights of others. The hundred and fourteenth âyat-i-kerîma of Sûra Hûd of the Qur’ân alkerîm purports: “... for those things that are good (hasanât) remove those that are evil: ...” (11-114) Scholars explain this âyat-i-kerîma as: “When the unperformed obligatory duties are performed then the sin will be forgiven.” When a person hears that someone has backbitten him, if he becomes sad because of what has been said behind his back, then this will be an additional grave sin for the backbiter. The good deed (hasanât) which will cause forgiveness of that grave sin is to get the forgiveness of the backbitten person. It is farz to make tawba immediately after a sin has been committed. It would be another grave sin to postpone the tawba, and in that case it would be necessary to make an additional tawba. The sin earned by not doing the obligatory duties will only be forgiven when the obligatory duty concerned is performed. Forgiveness of any sin committed requires tawba made with a remorseful heart, (a certain invocation termed) istighfâr [1] offered verbally, and a physical compensation (when necessary). Saying, “Subhânallah-il-’azîm wa bi-hamdihi”, a hundred times, giving alms and fasting for one day would be very beneficial. [1] The recommended prayer of invocation is: “Astaghfirullah al’azîm allazî lâ ilâha illâ anta Huwa-l Hayy-al Qayyûm wa atûbu ilayh.” – 164 –

The thirty-first âyat-i-kerîma of Sûra Nûr of the Qur’ân alkerîm purports: “... O ye Believers! Turn ye all together towards Allâhu ta’âlâ (make tawba). ...” (14-31). And the eighth âyat-ikerîma of Sûra Tahrîm purports: “Turn to Allâhu ta’âlâ with sincere repentance (tawba-i-nasûkh)...” (66-8). The word “nasûkh” in this âyat-i-kerîma was interpreted in twenty-three different ways. The most famous interpretation is having the sorry feeling and saying the repentance through tongue and deciding strongly not to do it again. The two hundred and twenty-second âyat-i-kerîma of Sûra Baqara purports: “... For Allâhu ta’âlâ loves those who turn to Him constantly. ...” (2- 222). A hadîth-i-sherîf reads: “The best of you is the one who makes repentance ‘tawba’ immediately after committing a sin.” The gravest sins are disbelief, hypocrisy, and deserting one’s faith or apostasy (irtidâd). [A person who has not become a Muslim, or who refuses to become one, is called a disbeliever (kâfir). The disbeliever who pretends to be Muslim in order to deceive Muslims is called hypocrite (munâfiq) and (zindiq). A person who becomes a disbeliever while he was a Muslim has committed apostasy (irtidad). A person who commits apostasy is called an apostate (murtad). If these three types of persons believe sincerely with their hearts, they will certainly become Muslims. The following observations are made in the books entitled Berîqa and Hadîqa, in the chapter dealing with the disasters incurred by way of speech, as well as in the book Majmâ’ulanhur: “If a Muslim, male and female alike, makes a statement or commits an act [consciously and without being subjected to duress] which they know Islamic scholars unanimously define as one of the statements or acts that will cause one to become a disbeliever, they will lose their îmân and become a murtad (apostate), even if the statement has been made or the act has been committed for a jocular purpose or without really thinking of its meaning. This sort of disbelief is termed kufr-i-inâdî. It causes one to become an apostate, to do so purposely, even if one does not know that the statement or the act concerned causes a state of unbelief. In this case the state of unbelief lapsed into is called kufr-i-jahlî. For, it is farz for every individual Muslim to learn those Islamic facts which they have been enjoined to know. Not to know it, therefore, is a grave sin, – 165 –

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