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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

performed. Hence, to

performed. Hence, to perform salâts of qadâ instead of salâts of sunnat does not mean to omit the sunnats. When a niyyat is made both for the qadâ and for the sunnat, thawâb for the sunnat will also be attained.] If a person who intends to make qadâ of the omitted salât prayers as described above starts to do so and then falls gravely ill, he should make a will (wasiyyat) saying that after his death there should be a “salât-kaffârat” performed for him. [1] His executer of the will should carry out his will. The executer (walî) is either designated by him or he is one of his heirs. In case, one misses one of the “wâjibs” of the “salât” prayer or commits a disliked action (makrûh) during the “salât” prayer, it becomes necessary (wâjib) to reperform that “salât” prayer within its prescribed time. It is also necessary to reperform a “nâfila-salât” prayer within its prescribed time if something happens to annul the “salât” prayer during the performance of the “salât” prayer. It is always necessary to perform “qadâ”, i.e., make up for the unpaid obligatory almsgiving (zakât), “sadaqa-i fitr”, and unperformed “nazr” and “qurbân” (animal sacrifice). A person who becomes poor later in life should perform “qadâ” of them through a process called “hîla-i shar’iyya”. If he does not become poor, it is “makrûh” for him to use the “hîla-i shar’iyya” method. [2] Sins between Allâhu ta’âlâ and the slave, i.e. those which do not involve violation of others’ rights, merely require a tawba made secretly. It is not necessary to inform a third person, e.g. the imâm of the region. Redemption, i.e. buying freedom from sins from a priest, is practised among Christians. Islam does not accommodate anything of that nature. Examples for sins which do not involve violation of others’ rights are: To read (or recite) [1] Please see the twenty-first chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss for detailed information; and how to make qadâ of omitted prayers of salât is explained at length in the twenty-third chapter of the fourth fascicle. [2] Hîla-i-shar’iyya is a method taught by Islamic scholars and which a Muslim can utilize in case of a quandary, e.g. to save himself from a difficult situation rendering it impossible for him to perform a religious duty or to avoid a religious prohibition. It is explained in detail in the three hundred and first, eight hundred and forty-fourth, and eight hundred and fifty-ninth pages of the Turkish book Se’âdeti-ebediyye. – 172 –

the Qur’ân al-kerîm in a state (which requires a canonical washing and termed) junub; to sit in a mosque (in such a state); to talk about worldly affairs or to eat and drink or to sleep in a mosque; to hold the Qur’ân al-kerîm without having an ablution (wudû); to play musical instruments; to consume wine; to commit fornication; for women to go out without covering (those parts of their body which Islam calls ‘awrat’ and commands them to cover, such as) their head, arms, legs and hair. Sins involving violation of animals’ rights are extremely difficult to get absolved from. It is sinful to kill an animal unjustly, to beat it, to slap it on the face, to make it walk beyond its energy, to overload it, and/or not to feed it or water it when it needs. Such sins necessitate both tawba and istighfâr, and remorseful and lamenting invocations. There are five types of violation of others’ rights: Mâlî (pertaining to property, financial); nafsî (pertaining to nafs); irzî (pertaining to honour); mahramî (pertaining to mahrams); dînî (religious). Examples for human rights violations pertaining to property are: Theft, extortion; selling something by way of fraud or lying; paying counterfeit money; causing damage to someone’s property; false testimony; treachery; bribery. Tawba and getting the wronged person’s forgiveness are necessary for this type of violation even if it is a matter of one cent or a seed of grain. Violations pertaining to property, (if they have not been compensated for,) should be compensated for by (the wrongdoer’s) children (inheriting from him). If worldly life is over before the compensation (or somehow getting forgiveness from the sufferer), it will be executed in the world to come (âkhirat) by way of bartering the wrongdoer’s thawâbs, (i.e. the rewards he is to be given in the Hereafter for his pious deeds in the world,) for the harm given (in the world). If the wronged person is dead, the payment should be done to his inheritors. In case there are no inheritors or the wronged person is not known, the payment should be done to poor people as a gift and the thawâb which the gifting produces should be sent to the wronged person’s soul. If there are no poor and pious Muslims, then the payment should be done to institutions of charity that serve Muslims or to pious foundations (waqf). It is also permissible to do the payment as a gift to one’s own pious relatives, i.e. to parents or children who are poor. Something gifted to a poor person falls into the category of almsgiving and produces thawâb – 173 –

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