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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

for almsgiving. In case

for almsgiving. In case none of the aforesaid alternatives is practicable, then the person guilty of the violation should pray for the forgiveness of (sins of) the person he has wronged and for the forgiveness of his own sins. Even if the person wronged is a disbeliever, it is necessary to (compensate or to) please him somehow so as to get yourself forgiven. Otherwise, great trouble will be awaiting you in the world to come. The second type of violation, nafsî, or pertaining to life, involves a homicide or mutilation. Absolution from this sin requires tawba and the guilty person’s resigning himself to the walî (executor) of the murdered or mutilated person. The walî has the choice to forgive him, to make peace in return for property, or to start a legal case against him and sue for his punishment. However, it is not permissible for him to retaliate on his own. [Islam does not have a place for vendettas of any sort.] An irzî violation of a right, (i.e. a violation of honour,) involves acts like backbiting, slander, mockery, and abusing. Forgiveness of this sin requires tawba and reconciliation with the wronged person (either by compensation or by apology or by pleasing him in one way or other.) This type of violation does not become rectified by any form of reconciliation with the (wronged person’s) inheritors. A mahramî violation of a right involves a perfidy perpetrated against a person via his wife or children. The offender has to make tawba and say istighfâr. If there is no likelihood of fitna, he ought to have himself forgiven by the person wronged. In case of any likelihood of fitna, he should pronounce a blessing over the wronged person in his absence or give alms on behalf of him, instead of attempting a direct confrontation. Violation of a religious right is, for instance, to be remiss in teaching one’s relatives or household their religious responsibilities, or to prevent them or other people from acquiring religious information or from worship, or to call other people disbelievers or sinners. To get their forgiveness, it is permissible to offer a mere apology instead of specifying the violation perpetrated. It is a very meritorious act (which produces plenty of thawâb) to forgive the debt of a poor person. It is stated in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “A person who makes tawba becomes as (clean as) if he had never sinned.” And in another: “A person who makes istighfâr with his speech but never feels sorry for the sin he committed is one who continues sinning. He is – 174 –

teasing Allâhu ta’âlâ.” Making istighfâr means saying the word “Astaghfirullah”. Muhammad ’Uthmân Hindî ‘quddisa sirruh’ [1] states as follows in the Fârisî language in his book Fawâid-i- ’Uthmâniyya: “You want me to write specific prayers for health for you. For health, (make tawba all the time and) say the prayer of istighfâr every now and then, [that is, say, ‘Astaghfirullah al’azim wa atûbu ilayh’]! It is very effective against cares and afflictions. The fifty-second âyat of Sûra Hûd purports: “Say (the prayer of) istighfâr! (If you do so) I shall come to thy rescue.” Istighfâr will make one attain all sorts of wishes as well as good health. It is stated in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “If a slave commits a sin and then repents, Allâhu ta’âlâ will forgive him even before he says (the prayer of) istighfâr.” And in another: “Make tawba even if your sins (make up piles which) reach skies. Allâhu ta’âlâ will accept your tawba.” These hadîth-i-sherîfs concern those sins which do not involve violating others’ rights. It is stated in a hadîth-i-sherîf: There are three kinds of sins: “Three types of sin are: The sin that will not be forgiven in the last Judgement day (Qiyâmat); the sin that is not discontinued; and the sin which will be forgiven if Allâhu ta’âlâ wishes.” The sin which will absolutely not be forgiven in the last Judgement day is, “shirk”. “Shirk” in this context is all kinds of disbelief. Sins that are not discontinued are the sins which involve violating others’ rights. The sins which will be forgiven if Allâhu ta’âlâ wishes are the sins which do not involve violating others’ rights. [1] Muhammad ’Uthmân passed away in 1314 hijrî [1896 A.D.] – 175 –

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