3 weeks ago

Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

and by the scholars

and by the scholars of (the science called) Kalâm. [Those who would like detailed information about the spiritual heart and soul should read the books Awârif-ul-ma’ârif, written by Shaikh Shihâbuddîn ’Umar Suhrawardî (539 [1145 A.D.]-632 [1234], Baghdâd), a scholar in the Shâfi’î Madhhab, and one of the fortunate people who received fayz from Abdulqâdîr-i-Geylânî, and Maktûbât, by Imâm Rabbânî Ahmad Fârûqî Serhendî (971 [1563 A.D.], Serhend, India-1034 [1624], Serhend) ‘rahimahumullâhu ta’âlâ’.] We will now provide further information about the spiritual heart and soul, in six paragraphs. 1– SPIRITUAL HEART AND SOUL EXIST: Existence of the soul is obvious. Something which itself is obvious does not need any extra evidence to prove its existence. The most obvious and evident thing for a human being is his existence. A human being does not forget about himself for a fraction of a second. The soul never forgets about itself even while it is asleep or drunk. There is no reason for trying to prove that a human being recognizes his own existence. Yet it is permissible to discuss and prove whether the soul is material or not, or whether it exists by itself or along with something else or the existence of other similar attributes which it possesses. Obvious as most of them are, they ought to be reviewed in the following five paragraphs: 2– SPIRITUAL HEART AND SOUL ARE SUBSTANCES, which means they exist. Rûh is called “jân” in Persian. When an animal dies, we say its “jân” has departed from it. It means its soul has left its body. Every created being is either a substance (jawhar) or an attribute (’araz). If something is substance, it does not need anything else’s existence as a foundation for its existence. It stays in existence by itself. If something is an attribute (sifat, ’araz), it can’t stay in existence by itself. Something else is required to hold it in existence. Matter and objects are substances. Their colors, smells and shapes are their attributes. Color exists on a substance. Color cannot exist without a substance to qualify. There are two types of substance. The first one is mujarrad, i.e. immaterial, being. It does not have weight, shape or color, and it doesn’t affect the sense organs. The second one is matter. The immaterial substance cannot be perceived through sense organs and cannot be divided. Wisdom (’aql) and soul are examples of this type. Matter, by contrast, can be – 184 –

perceived through sense organs and can be divided. When matter takes a certain shape, it is called an object (jism). It is a fact proven through a number of different events that soul is a substance. The simplest event which proves it is this: Attributes exist on substances. In other words, substances bear attributes. The soul receives and bears everything perceptible and thinkable. Hence, the heart and soul are substances, not attributes. This argument, however, has been refused on the grounds of some irregular instances, such as existence of attributes on other attributes; velocity, for instance, is an attribute of motion, which is not a substance. 3– SPIRITUAL HEART AND SOUL ARE ELEMENTARY: Something which cannot be split into parts is called elementary. The opposite of elementary is composite or compound. According to this definition, chemical elements, which have been considered to be elementary, are actually compounds because they can be split into atoms or into gaseous molecules. That the soul is elementary proves itself with the fact that it grasps something which is known to be elementary. If the spiritual heart and the soul were compounds, i.e. if it were possible to split each of them into parts, something elementary, i.e. indivisible, would fail to catch on them. For, when the soul, for instance, split into parts, anything elementary it bore would also have to split with it. And that, in turn, is out of the question, since something elementary cannot be split. 4– SPIRITUAL HEART AND SOUL ARE NOT OBJECTS: A substance which has dimensions such as height, depth and length is an object. It is also defined as matter which has shape or form. Things which exist in objects (jisms) are called jismânî (material). Since attributes exist in objects, they are said to be material. 5– SPIRITUAL HEART AND SOUL PERCEIVE AND MANIPULATE: They know themselves. They know also that they know themselves. They perceive colors by way of sight and sounds through hearing. They manipulate the nervous system and move the muscles, thus making the body perform certain actions. These actions are voluntary actions. 6– SOUL CANNOT BE PERCEIVED THROUGH SENSE ORGANS: Material beings can be perceived. Since the soul is not an object or a material being, it cannot be perceived. – 185 –

Ethical Assessment of Stem Cell Research from an Islamic Point of ...
Confessions of a British Spy and British Enmity Against Islam
Belief and Islam
Answer to an Enemy of Islam
Islam and Christianity
Seadet-i Ebediyye - Endless Bliss First Fascicle
The Sunni Path
The Ethics and Pro-Social Values in Judaism, Christianity and Islam ...
Sahaba - The Blessed