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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.


FIRST SUPPLEMENT TO PREFACE In this section we will explain the superiority of human beings over other creatures: all objects are similar with respect to their constitution, i.e., they are all made of matter and possess weight and volume. Human beings and animals are also equal to inanimate objects in this respect. But objects are differentiated from each other according to their specific attributes. [Every object is made of atoms. A speck of dust is a collection of millions of atoms. Certain small numbers of atoms combine together to build molecules. There are two types of substances: pure substances and mixtures. Substances which possess specific qualities are called pure substances. For example, copper wire and rain water are pure substances because they possess the same quality all the time, no matter where they are on earth. Their boiling and melting temperatures are known and never change. Objects that do not possess steady qualities are called mixtures. Milk, wood, gasoline, sea water are mixtures. They may possess different qualities depending on the state they are in. They do not possess constant boiling and melting temperatures. For example, cow’s milk is different from sheep’s while the water of the Black Sea is different from the water of the Mediterranean Sea. The water of the Black Sea is less salty than the water of the Mediterranean Sea. Pure substances are also categorized in two groups. They are called elements if they cannot be divided further into other parts which have different characteristics. Gold, sulphur, iodine, and oxygen are elements. We know of a hundred and five elements as of today. Pure substances which can be split into constituent parts with different characteristics are called composite substances. For example, sugar, rain water and alcohol are composite substances. If sugar is exposed to fire, it will decompose into carbon, water and some other constituents. Likewise, water can be divided into hydrogen and oxygen gases when it is exposed to electrical energy in a known manner. Today we know millions of composite objects. Composite objects are combinations of atoms of two or more elements. Each and every substance can be in one of the following three forms: solid, liquid and gaseous forms. For example, water is in its solid form when it is frozen; liquid form when it is water; and gaseous form when it is vaporous. Gaseous form means it is like air and does not have a certain volume or shape. Simple objects – 194 –

or elements are divided into three groups: 1– Real minerals (also called metals). 2– Non-minerals (also called ametals). 3– Half minerals (semi-metals). There are seventy-eight real minerals. Seventy-seven of them are in solid form at room temperature, with the exception of mercury, which is in liquid form at room temperature. Its boiling temperature is 357.3 degree Celsius and it becomes solid at -39.4 degree Celsius. When solid real minerals are beaten with a hammer, they take sheet-metal form. They are not pulverized. When atoms of metals combine with other atoms, they carry a positive electric charge. They cannot carry negative electric charges. Therefore, two metals cannot combine with each other because two metals which have positive charges do not attract each other. On the contrary, they repel each other. There are seventeen ametals. One of them is in liquid form; five of them are in solid form and eleven of them are in gaseous form. When solid ametals are beaten with a hammer in a mortar, they will be pulverized instead of taking the form of a sheet. Pure charcoal is an ametal and is called carbon in chemistry. When ametal atoms take the composite form by combining with others, they can carry positive as well as negative electricity. Therefore, a few ametal atoms can combine together to form a molecule. Composite objects are divided into two groups. Those which possess carbon and hydrogen atoms simultaneously in their constitution are called organic materials. They are flammable and come into existence in living beings. Recently, some of these materials have been synthesized in laboratories and plants. Fat, sugar, acetone, quinine are some of the examples for organic substances. Objects which do not contain carbon and hydrogen simultaneously (namely hydrocarbons) in their constitution are called inorganic objects. They exist on the shell of the earth and in a dissolved form in the sea. Salt used in cooking, water, limestone, silica and sand are of this type. All of these inanimate objects are mixed and combined in a certain manner to form the basic building block of living cells. Cells are living things. Animal cells differ from plant cells, and human cells are similar to animal cells. Living cells combine to form tissues while different kinds of tissues combine to form organs. Various organs combine together to form systems. The – 195 –

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