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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

addition, we have many

addition, we have many human attributes that distinguish us from them. The honor of being a human comes from these attributes. The most important one of these attributes is the power of comprehension, understanding or thought (nutq). “Nutq” also means power of speech, but we shall not dwell on that meaning in this subject. A person without a tongue cannot speak but he is still human because he possesses understanding and comprehension and can think. Parrots can talk but they are not humans because they don’t have understanding, comprehension, thinking ability or wisdom. It is this power of nutq, alone, which benefits in the unique gift of distinguishing good habits and deeds from their evil counterparts. Allâhu ta’âlâ gave this faculty to human beings so that they could recognize their Creator. The spiritual heart and soul, by using this power studies the universe, earth, skies, [as well as laws of physics, chemistry, and other activities pertaining to human life], and thus recognizes the existence of Allâhu ta’âlâ and His superior Attributes. Thus, by following the commandments and avoiding the acts which Islam prohibits, the owner of the spiritual heart and soul attains happiness in this world and the next, and protects himself from disasters. The fiftysixth âyat of Sûra Zâriyât purports: “I have only created jinns and men that they may worship Me.” The word ‘worship’ used in this âyat-i-kerîma should be construed as ‘know’. As a matter of fact, we have been created to know and believe our Creator Allâhu ta’âlâ. The animal attributes of human beings, e.g., appetite and rage which make them resemble animals are due to their animal soul. These animal attributes are of no value for the human soul. Animals also possess these powers; in fact, they are stronger in animals than in humans. For example, cows and donkeys eat and drink more than humans. Pigs and birds have much more sexual vigour. Lions, water buffaloes, and elephants are more powerful. Wolves and tigers are better and fiercer fighters. Rats, dogs and cats can see in the dark and smell from a distance. All these properties cannot be an honor for humans. If these properties were causes of honor, the aforementioned animals would be deemed as more honorable and superior to humans. The honors of human beings are due to the two powers of their souls, namely, the spiritual heart and the soul. The spiritual heart and the soul will, by using the power of nutq, recognize virtues and sublime values, hold fast to them by using the practical power, and for that matter, avoid iniquities. – 202 –

Belief in Allâhu ta’âlâ and a ma’rifat (closer knowledge) of Him is something easier said than done. It can be accomplished by believing the meaning of the six fundamental principles of belief (âmantu). The fifth one of these principles is believing in Doomsday and Rising after death. The unenlightened say, “It has been communicated that the blessings of Paradise are birds meat, fruits, milk, pure honey, villas, virgins of Paradise and similar things that give pleasure to the physical body. These things satisfy appetite and animal desires. Since the happiness of the soul depends on the knowledge of Allâhu ta’âlâ and things that are approved by wisdom, the pleasures of the soul will fade away, being trumped with the animal pleasures. Therefore, would not this axiomatic syllogism inevitably lead to the conclusion that the highly-esteemed people of the world like prophets ‘alaihim-us-salawât-ü-wa-t-taslîmât’, Awliyâ, and scholars ‘rahimahumullâhu ta’âlâ’ would, in the Hereafter, be leading a life worthy of the lowliest people, to spare them the more hurtful term ‘bestial’? Moreover, in order for the physical body to enjoy the pleasures of Paradise, it should suffer first. The physical body does not require anything unless it is in desperate need. For example, unless hunger is felt the pleasures of eating and drinking cannot be appreciated. Without being tired or sleepy, one cannot appreciate the comfort and pleasure of sleep. Since there is no discomfort in Paradise, the physical body cannot possibly enjoy those pleasures.” Avicenna, a famous philosopher raised in Muslim culture, in his books Shifâ and Najât, professed his belief in the Day of Judgement but in another book of his entitled Muâd he recanted. Another scholar, Nasîruddin al-Tûsî, in some parts of his book Tejrîd, wrote about Rising after death; but in other parts he also contradicted what he had written earlier. All Believers unanimously state that the physical body will be present on the Day of Judgement. What is wrong, however, is to assume that the blessings of Paradise are only for the body. Once a soul starts making progress in the world, it will carry on its progress even after it leaves the body and also until the Day of Judgement. In Paradise, the body will be reconstructed so as to lead an eternal life and will be different from the one on earth. Life after death will start with the reunion of the soul and that physical body modified for eternity. The pleasures and enjoyments which the soul will relish will differ from those which will be presented to the body to entertain itself with in the – 203 –

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