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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

that it is carrying. Its

that it is carrying. Its attachment to the physical body and also its worldly preoccupations prevent it from realizing the situation. No longer will these barriers exist when the soul parts with the body. Then it will begin to see the aforesaid representations of its good and evil loads. Human life on earth looks like the state of a drunk man, and death is the sobering up of the drunk man. While a man is drunk, people who love him tell him things or give him presents or possibly bad things happen to him. He would not feel anything even if scorpions and snakes crept into his undershirt, because of his state of mind. But, once he sobers up, he realizes everything. This situation is similar to the states of the world of likenesses. Sa’daddîn-i Taftâzânî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ in his book Sharhi-maqâsid, after explaining the world of likenesses, says that because no evidence is available to prove these things, true scholars did not pay much attention to them. By ‘true scholars’ he means scholars who try to make their minds admit things which the human mind is capable of comprehending. What would befit a follower of mind, however, is not to deny something abstruse only because it is beyond his reach. As a matter of fact, Ibni Sînâ (Avicenna), a leading follower of mind, stated, “If something cannot be proven to be impossible, it should not be said to be so. For, to deny something without proving its being impossible is, like denying something you cannot comprehend, a scientific shame.” Shihâbud-dîn al-Suhrawardî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ with him said, “Astronomers say that millions of stars come together and form a system. Every system moves in space without any disruption. People admit their information although they do not see the event. Likewise, the information given by great leaders of Tasawwuf concerning the world of likeness and souls should be admitted without seeing, since it is something which those great spiritual specialists explore through (a method which they carry on with their purified hearts and which is termed) kashf.” It would be a wiser predilection to believe people who inform about something, instead of blindly following the deniers. [A man who posseses reason and scientific knowledge immediately understands and can prove existence and Oneness of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Believing in the next world (âkhirat) is a different matter. We believe in the next world because it has been communicated to us by Allâhu ta’âlâ.] – 206 –

KNOWLEDGE OF ETHICS AND TEACHING OF MORALS IN ISLAM Knowledge which informs us about the states and actions of the spiritual heart (qalb) and soul (rûh) is called “Knowledge of Ethics.” We are informed by scholars about the states and actions of a person when he is alone in nine sections. In this book we will explain only six of these. FIRST SECTION In this section, habits as well as good and evil things will be explained. Habit (huy) is a faculty (malaka) of the spiritual heart and soul. They, through this faculty, perform actions spontaneously without considering them consciously. Habits formed permanently are called faculties, while, a temporary habit is called state (hâl). For example, laughing or being ashamed are states (hâl). Generosity and bravery are faculties. When we refer to habits, it should be understood that we mean faculties. Doing good deeds occasionally does not constitute a habit, but doing them regularly does. If someone performs charitable deeds frequently, he is considered to be a generous person. However, if a person does good deeds regularly by forcing himself, he is not considered a generous person. If he does good deeds naturally, spontaneously, continually, and lovingly, then he is a generous person. Habit serves as a means for doing morally good or evil actions. Sometimes it causes actions which are neither good nor evil. In the first case it is called good nature, or virtue (fazîlat). Generosity, bravery and gentleness are good examples of this. In the second case it becomes vice, scandalous behavior, evil nature, or disagreeable habit, such as stinginess and cowardice. In the third, it is neither virtue nor vice; then it is called arts and crafts, such as tailoring and farming. In this book, we will explain the first and the second cases. As we have noted at the end of the preface, the spiritual heart – 207 –

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