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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

the negative ideas

the negative ideas generated by later generations do not invalidate the unanimous teachings of the earlier scholars and pious Muslims. A correct belief which is acquired by only imitating parents or teachers is judged as valid. Yet a person who acquires his belief in this fashion is considered a sinner on account of his desertion of the necessary studies, i.e., his not studying and learning the scientific knowledge and not developing his mind to contemplate and understand the existence of Allâhu ta’âlâ. There are other scholars, however, who say that a person’s lack of scientific knowledge does not constitute a sin if he is able to obtain belief from his parents or by reading books or by contemplating. Everyone should select one of those scholars, who are at the level of deriving rules, i.e. doing (ijtihâd) regarding religious issues, and imitate him in all of his matters. Ijtihâd means understanding the meaning of a vaguely defined information and reaching conclusions in circumstances about which there are no clearly understood commands (Nass) in the Qur’ân al-kerîm or in hadîth-i-sherîfs. Âyats of the Qur’ân and hadîths are called “Nass.” Scholars who possess the qualifications to perform ijtihâd are called “mujtahid”. No mujtahid has been raised since four hundred years after our blessed Prophet’s migration (Hijrat) from Mekka to Medîna. Nor has it ever been necessary, for Allâhu ta’âlâ and His Messenger Prophet Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ explained all the rules (ahkâm) or information which would be applicable to all kinds of life styles and all kinds of scientific and technical changes and circumstances which would emerge till the end of the world. The Mujtahids understood these teachings and explained them to others. Scholars who came later learned how these teachings could be applied to new circumstances and wrote them in their books of Tafsîr (exegesis of the Qur’ân al-kerîm) and Fiqh (branch of Islamic knowledge teaching Islam’s tenets on practices). These scholars are called mujaddids (restorers). They will exist till the end of the world. Hence, those who propose the necessity of modifying the religion by adding new things to “Nass” are enemies of Islam. They make such assertions as, “Scientific media have changed. We are facing new events. Religious men should gather and write new interpretations. New ijtihâds should be performed”. They are enemies of Islam . They are disbelievers (zindiqs). The most harmful enemies of Islam are of British origin. Please read the book Confessions of a British Spy which is published by Hakikat Kitabevi. While one is following one of the – 44 –

true four Madhhabs as long as there is no necessity to follow another Madhhab, one should adhere to the Madhhab one has been following. But, if there is a difficulty regarding performance of a specific case or if one cannot perform a certain deed according to one’s Madhhab because of one’s own circumstances, in that instance, one can follow another Madhhab in which it is permissible to do that specific deed. But there is a caveat in this. One is not allowed to collect the easiest ijtihâds of the four Madhhabs in order to perform a certain deed or worship. [1] Any deed or worship done in this manner would not be an acceptable (valid) worship. After the fourth century of Islamic calendar no scholar with the capacity of Mujtahid Mutlaq, i.e. one who is capable of doing ijtihâd by way of qiyâs (analogy, comparison), was raised. Therefore, it is not permissible to follow any scholar who lived after the fourth century of Islamic calendar or any “Madhhab” beyond the four established “Madhhabs”. To learn Islamic knowledge in accordance with one of the well known four Madhhabs of the scholars who lived before the fourth century, one should read books of fiqh advised unanimously by the scholars of that Madhhab. One should not try to attempt to learn religious knowledge from the books or speeches of those who are not authorized by true “Ahl as-sunnat scholars”. Islam does not accept acts of worship performed in accordance with instructions acquired from religious books chosen on a haphazard basis. One should not adapt oneself, for instance, to the books and speeches of non-Sunnî men of religion. The following religious (Fatwâ) books of the “Hanafî Madhhab” are widely accepted and dependable: Kâdihân, Hâniyya, Hulâsa, Bezzâziyya, Zahîriyya and [Ibn al-Âbidîn.] The book Muhtasar al-Khalîl is written according to “Mâlikî Madhhab”, the book al Anwâr li-a’mâli abrâr and the book Tuhfa-t-ul-muhtâj are written according to “Shâfi’î Madhhab”. The book Al fiqh-u alal-madhâhib-il-arba’a is written according to four Madhhabs. All of these books are correct and dependable. Books of Hadîth are not an easy source wherefrom to learn the teachings pertaining to acts of worship or ‘ahkâm’, which means ‘teachings based on halâls and harâms’. The most dependable books of Hadîth are Sahîh al-Bukhârî, Sahîh al- Muslim and the other four books of Hadîth which are called Kutub al-Sitta. [1] This collection of the easiest aspects of the four Madhhabs is called telfîq. Lexical meaning of telfîq is ‘eclecticism’. – 45 –

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