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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

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simultaneously through the heart and by repeating through the lips. If the intention in the heart is different from what is said through the lips, the intention in the heart will be valid. The only exception to this rule is the case of taking an oath. The oral utterance or the word that comes out of the mouth in the case of the oath is valid. There is no information or any hadîth which teaches us that the intention can be done by repeating with the tongue. None of the religious leaders (imâms) of the four Madhhabs said so. The meaning of intention is not only to remember through the heart what worship one is intending to do. Its real meaning is the desire of doing that worship for the sake of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Intention is formed when one is initiating a worship. If one, for example, intends to do a worship one day before one actually carries out that worship, such an intention is not accepted. That would be called a desire or promise but not an intention. In the Hanafî Madhhab, the time of intention for performing fasting starts with the prior day’s sunset and lasts by the time of “dahwa-i kubrâ” of the day of fasting {Time of ‘dahwai kubra’ is one hour before midday.} Sometimes not performing a “mubâh action” (e.g. an action neither commanded nor prohibited by the “Sharî’at”), in order to save others from committing a sin, is a better act. This rule does not apply to “Sunnats” and “Mustahabs”. In other words, skipping peformance of the Sunnats or Mustahabs in order to save people from committing a sin is not permissible (jâiz). For example, it would not be proper to give up using a miswâk or wearing a (special length of cloth wound round the head, and called) turban or going around bare-headed or riding a donkey lest others should commit backbiting, (which is a sinful act). “Miswâk” is a piece of shoot cut from a “miswâk”, olive or mulberry tree. It is as long as the span of the right hand and as thick as a finger. It is also permissible (jâiz) for women to chew gum instead of using “miswâk”. Anyone who is not able to find a “miswâk” should rub his thumb and first finger on his teeth. Bishr al-Hafî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ used to walk around without wearing a head cover. A person’s not committing a sin while he would be able to do so is either due to his fear of Allâhu ta’âlâ in his heart or due to his fear of shame of others or due to his fear of setting a bad example, i.e., if he does it, others may start doing it too. The sign of one’s not committing the sin because of the fear of Allâhu – 50 –

ta’âlâ is that one does not commit the same sin while one is alone and not seen by anyone. The meaning of having shame (hayâ) is one’s being afraid of the ill-talk of people, e.g., if one commits that sin, people will talk disfavourably about one. Causing others to commit a certain sin is a much graver sin than committing that sin alone. The sin of others who will be committing that sin until doomsday will also be recorded in the book assigned for the originator of that sin. The following was said in a hadîth, “If a person hides his sin in the world, Allâhu ta’âlâ will also hide that sin from others on the Day of Gathering (Qiyâmat).” The meaning of this hadîth does not include a person who hides his sin from others in order to introduce himself as a person of wara’ but who commits that sin while he is alone. That would be hypocrisy. It is not permissible to feel shame if others should see you performing worship. Shame means not to show one’s sins or faults to others. For that matter, it is not permissible to be too shameful to preach Islam, to encourage others to perform good deeds (amri-ma’rûf) and dissuade them from wrongdoing (nahy-i-munkar), [to write or sell books teaching Islam, (books of ’ilm al-hâl),] to serve as an imâm or as a muazzin, to read (or recite) the Qur’ân al-kerîm, or to recite the mawlîd. The meaning of “Hayâ” in the hadîth, “ ‘Hayâ’ is part of belief (îmân)” is that one should be ashamed of committing wicked deeds and sins in the presence of others. A Believer (Mu’min) first of all should be ashamed of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Hence, he should perform his worships regularly and with sincerity. Once, one of the scholars of the city of Bukhâra [a city in central Asia] saw the children of the ruler (Sultan) playing an unpleasant game on the street. He hit the children with his staff. The children ran away and complained to their father. The ruler called the scholar to his presence and asked him if he did not know that anyone who opposed the ruler would be jailed. The scholar answered him by asking if he did not know anyone who opposed “Rahmân” (Allâhu ta’âlâ) would go to Hell. The ruler asked him how he had got the authority to make ’amri-ma’rûf. The scholar replied by asking him who had appointed him ruler. The ruler answered that the Caliph had appointed him ruler. Then, the scholar responded that Lord of Caliph had assigned him the duty of ’amr-i-ma’rûf. The ruler said to him that he gave him the authority for doing ’amr-i-ma’rûf in the city of Bukhâra. Thereupon the scholar answered that in that case he resigned from that duty. The ruler said to him that he was – 51 –

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