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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

that there are only a

that there are only a few obligatory prayers. Therefore, one should perform them by observing all of its proper conditions. One should go further and tell the devil that a relatively small number of nâfila (supererogatory) prayers performed in a manner suitable with their precepts is better than a much greater number of those not so properly performed. Sixth: The devil tries to make one commit hypocrisy by suggesting to him that he should perform his prayers in such a beautiful way that everyone should admire their beauty. One should answer these suggestions by saying that “no one is capable of doing any goodness or harm to one’s self. Since this is the case, doing any goodness or harm to others is out of the question. It would be ridiculous, therefore, to expect something from creatures, who are so powerless. Only Allâhu ta’âlâ, alone, can give goodness or harm to people. Consequently, Allah’s seeing a person’s prayers is good enough for him.” Seventh: When the devil realizes that it can’t stop a person from performing his worships, it will suggest self-admiration of his worships. The devil will tell him how smart and alert he is as well as tell him that while everyone is unaware of the reality, he is performing worships. He should answer it by saying that the intelligence, alertness and awareness are not coming from himself but they are a favor of Allâhu ta’âlâ. If Allâhu ta’âlâ did not favor him with these, he wouldn’t be able to perform any prayers. Eighth: The devil wants to promote secret hypocrisy in a person by suggesting to him that he should perform his prayers secretly so that Allâhu ta’âlâ will place his love and honor into the hearts of others. A person who receives these suggestions should answer the devil by saying, “I am a slave of Allâhu ta’âlâ and He is my Owner. He may either accept my prayers or reject them. It is not my business whether or not He places my love into the hearts of others.” Ninth: The devil suggests to a person by saying, “Why should one perform the prayers? It is already determined in eternal past whether a person will be a happy person (sa’îd) who will be delivered to Paradise or an unfortunate person (shaqî) who will be delivered to Hell. Hence, whoever is a happy person, his wrongdoings will be forgiven when he commits sins, by not performing the worships, and he will still go to Paradise. A person who is predetermined as an unfortunate person in eternal past – 60 –

will surely go to Hell regardless of how much worship he performs. Thus, do not tire yourself needlessly! Be comfortable!” One who receives these types of suggestions should answer by saying, “I am a slave of Allâhu ta’âlâ and the duty of a slave is to carry out the orders of his owner.” If the devil counters by saying, “If there is a fear of punishment for not performing the worships, in that case, it becomes a necessity for a person to perform the worships. But there is no fear of punishment for the happy person.” One should answer by saying, “My Lord knows everything and He does whatever He wishes. He either gives goodness or troubles to whomever He chooses. No one has any right to ask Him why He does this or that.” The devil showed himself to Jesus (Îsâ) ‘alaihis-salâm’ and said to him, “Are you saying that those things that are determined in eternal past will come to pass?” Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ replied, “Yes, certainly that is the case.” The devil then said, “If that is the case, go jump from the top of the mountain if it is determined in eternal past that you will not be harmed, no harm will come to you!” Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ replied, “O you, accursed one! Allâhu ta’âlâ tests His slaves. A slave has no right to test his Owner.” One should say the following to oneself in order to guard oneself against these types of suggestions: “If it is determined in eternal past that I am one of the happy ones then it is necessary for me to perform the worships in order to increase rewards and degrees. If I am one of the unfortunate ones, I will perform the worships in order to avoid punishment for them.” One should further say to oneself, “Performing worships do not bring any harm to me. Allâhu ta’âlâ is absolutely Wise (Hakîm). Therefore, it would not befit His Wisdom to punish a person who performs worships for His sake. Even though not performing the worships would not harm a happy person, it will not give any benefit to him, either. Hence, how could a happy person ever prefer not to perform the worships? Anyone who has reasoning will perform worships that are beneficial and abstain from those things that are harmful. If it was determined in eternal past that I would be one of the unfortunate ones, I would still prefer being an obedient slave who has been sent to Hell to being one who has been sent there because of his disobedience to Allâhu ta’âlâ. Moreover, Allâhu ta’âlâ promises that He will place those who perform worships into Paradise and punish, in Hell, those who do not perform worships. Allâhu ta’âlâ certainly will keep His promise. It is reported by previous scholars with unanimity that He will not – 61 –

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