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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

enege on His promise.”

enege on His promise.” Allâhu ta’âlâ creates everything through causes. This is His ’Âdat-i-ilâhiyya (Divine law of causation). He suspends His law of causation only in special cases such as mu’jizât and karâmât. [1] He informs us that He has assigned worships as a vehicle for entering Paradise. In other words, He created the blessings of Paradise as a reward for worships. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “No one can enter Paradise owing to his performed worships.” Something which is given as a reward should not be mistaken for something deserved owing to one’s efforts. Tenth: The devil says to a person, “If it is determined in eternal past that a person will perform worships, then, that person will perform worships. The Decree of Allâhu ta’âlâ does not change. Human beings are forced to accept the Decree of Allâhu ta’âlâ, so that they either perform the worships or don’t perform the worships, depending on the eternal Decree of Allâhu ta’âlâ.” These suggestions of the devil are similar to the previous suggestions. Accordingly, the ones who are determined as happy ones in eternal past will be able to perform worships, and it will be necessary for those who are determined as unfortunate ones in the eternal past not to perform the worships. One should reply to the deceits of the devil by saying: Even though Allâhu ta’âlâ creates everything including the good and evil actions of human beings, He gave small amounts of will power (irâda al-juz’iyya) to human beings and animals. This type of will power is exercised by human beings, but this exercise of will power cannot be explained with the statement that human beings created something, for will power does not exist in the external universe (things other than human beings). It exists inside the hearts of human beings. Creation takes place when something comes into being in the external universe. By contrast, the Omnipotent Will of Allâhu ta’âlâ, (which is termed Irâda-i-kulliya,) exists as a self-standing entity. Allâhu ta’âlâ has made man’s limited will power a means for creating his actions. Allâhu ta’âlâ could create even without [1] Allâhu ta’âlâ suspends His law of causation when He wills to reinforce His beloved prophets and Awliyâ with extraordinary events and wonders, or miracles. When a miracle happens through a prophet, we call it a mu’jiza (pl. mu’jizât); when it happens through a beloved slave of Allâhu ta’âlâ, who is called a Walî (pl. Awliyâ), it is termed karâmat (pl. karâmât). – 62 –

man’s will power but it is His Divine Habit to create things through man’s will power. An oft-seen exception, however, is that He has suspended this Habit of His for the sake of His beloved prophets ‘alaihim-us-salawât-u-wa-t-taslîmât’ and His (darling slaves called) Awliyâ ‘qaddas-Allâhu ta’âlâ asrârahum-ul-’azîz’, creating through those blessed people extraordinary events quite unattached to His law of causation. These events are termed miracles. Man’s (limited will-power called) irâda-i-juz’iyya is not the sole factor effective in the materialization of his actions. In other words, not everything that man wishes, comes into being. Nor is it a customary method of Allâhu ta’âlâ to create only as He wills. For this reason, human beings are not forced in their actions in any way. Human beings use their will power for something they want to do. If Allâhu ta’âlâ also decrees it, that action materializes. The devil tries to deceive human beings by saying, “A human being performs worships if Allâhu ta’âlâ wills it, and he does not do the worships if Allâhu ta’âlâ does not will it. So, man is forced to do or not to do his actions. It does not matter whether a human being works or not. The Decree ‘qada and qadar’ which is given in eternal past will materialize.” It is true that actions of human beings materialize according to the Decree given in eternal past but, for them to materialize, human beings use their will power. In other words, a human being uses his option of selection and selects and wants to do something or chooses not to do something. The meaning of the eternal Decree is that Allâhu ta’âlâ knew with His infinite knowledge and wisdom how a person would use his limited will power and decreed accordingly and wrote these into (a special book called) the Lawh-il-mahfûz. Since this is clearly the case, there is no problem of being forced to do anything. If someone knows what another person will do during a given day and decrees that he should perform those actions and write all his knowledge on a piece of paper, the person who will perform those actions cannot claim that he is forced to do those actions. He cannot complain by saying, “You knew what I was going to do. You wanted me to do those actions. You even wrote them on a piece of paper. Therefore, you caused all the actions I performed!” For, he has done all the actions by using his own will power, not because the other person knew them and wanted him to perform them and wrote them on a piece of paper. Similarly, Allâhu ta’âlâ’s Knowledge and Decree and His writing them in the Lawh-il-mahfûz does not constitute coercion over His – 63 –

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