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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

creatures. Allâhu

creatures. Allâhu ta’âlâ knew in eternal past that a certain person would do a certain action and therefore decreed that he should do those actions and wrote them in the Lawh-il-mahfûz. His knowledge in eternal past depends on the actions that are carried out by the person using his limited will power. So, the person’s actions materialize through His Knowledge, Will and creation. If a person did not use his will power, Allâhu ta’âlâ would have known in eternal past that he would not use his will power and thus He would not decree and would not create, which means to say that the knowledge depends on the known things. If human beings did not have their will power and if their actions were only created by the will of Allâhu ta’âlâ, then one could say that human beings were forced in their actions. According to the (only true Islamic school of credal teachings called the) Madhhab of Ahl as-sunnat, actions of human beings are created through a process of two overlapping stages: the (limited) power (of option) exercised by human beings; and the (infinite) power (of creation) possessed by Allâhu ta’âlâ. [The spiritual heart (qalb) of a human being is not made of matter. It is like electric or magnetic waves. It does not occupy a space. But, its power and effect are produced on the material heart which is located on the left side of the chest of a human being. ’Aql (wisdom), nafs, and rûh (soul), also, are separate entities like the spiritual heart (qalb). These three entities are connected to the spiritual heart. Sense organs of a human being such as eyes, ears, nose, mouth and skin, sense colors, sound, smell, taste and coldness or warmth, and transmit these impressions into the brain through the nerve system. Brain transmits these into the spiritual heart as soon as it receives them. The wishes and desires of wisdom, the nafs, the soul, and devil are also transmitted to the spiritual heart. The spiritual heart uses its will power and makes a choice from among them, and makes a decision. It either rejects and eliminates the alternatives suggested, or accepts them and relates its acceptance to the brain, and the brain transmits these through action nerves to the organs. The organs, in turn, will move and perform the decided actions if Allâhu ta’âlâ also wills and gives the power to these organs. Thus, the actions which are chosen or decided by the spiritual heart materialize.] – 64 –

12– CONCEIT (KIBR) The twelfth malady of the heart is conceit. Conceit is one’s holding or deeming one’s self to be superior to others. A person with this malady feels complacency in his heart when he thinks himself to be superior to others. ’Ujb (self-love) also is a feeling of superiority. In this case one does not think of oneself as superior to a specific person or persons but in a generalized sense sees one’s self and deeds as superior. Conceit is a very disagreeable trait and is prohibited (harâm). It is a sign of forgetting one’s Creator, Rabb. Many religious men suffer from this malady. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “A person who has an atom’s weight of conceit in his heart will not enter Paradise.” The opposite of conceit is tawâdu’, which is a feeling of equality. A humble person holds himself equal with others. He does not hold himself to be either superior or inferior to others. Humility is a very valuable trait for a human being. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “How lucky for humble people.” A humble person does not think of himself as inferior to others. He is neither a base nor a lazy person. He earns his living by permissible (halâl) means and gives much to charity or as a gift to others. He establishes acquaintances with scholars or scientists. He also feels compassion toward poor people. In the following hadîths Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states: “A humble person who earns his living by permissible (halâl) means, who has an agreeable nature, who is very mild towards others, and who does not harm anyone else is a very beautiful person,” and “A person who humbles himself for the sake of Allâhu ta’âlâ will be raised to superior ranks by Allâhu ta’âlâ.” Treating a conceited person with equal conceited behavior is permissible (jâiz). Allâhu ta’âlâ is proud (Mutakabbir) toward His creatures. Allâhu ta’âlâ has pride (Kibr). A person will earn rewards (thawâb) when he treats a conceited person with equally conceited behavior. Anyone who treats a conceited person humbly has done injustice to himself (by doing so). It is also permissible to be conceited towards those who have deviated from the right path and towards rich people. Responding with conceited behavior towards them is not for the purpose of showing one’s superiority but for waking them up to reality. Being proud and haughty against the enemy during a war is very rewarding. This type of haughtiness is called “huyalâ.” A person – 65 –

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