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Islam and Christianity

ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY This book is written in the nature of a “key” for those Muslim brothers of ours who have just a smattering of knowledge on how the Islamic religion has developed, and it has been written for those non-Muslims willing to know the fundamentals of Islam. Islam, the most up-to-date and the most immaculate of the world’s existing religions, is based upon very humane and very logical principles. Without going into details, this book touches upon the fundamentals of Islam and makes a comparison of Islam with other religions. It answers criticisms raised against Islam by its adversaries and explains as compendiously as possible the qualifications essential for being a good Muslim. For those who would like to read valuable books on Islam written by Islamic scholars (rahimahumullâhu ta’âlâ) after learning the facts contained in this book, we advise that they read books published in different languages by the Hakîkat Kitabevi (Bookstore) in Istanbul. The names of these books are appended to our books. Read this book slowly and with reflection! Encourage others to read it, too! An ignorant person cannot be a good Muslim. Indeed, it is impossible for a person not to attach all his heart to Islam after learning its fundamentals. After reading this book, you will also realize what a lofty, sacred, logical, and perfect religion Islam is, and you will attach all your heart and soul to it in order to attain salvation and repose in this world and in the hereafter. Islam that abrogated celestial religions of Judaism and Christianity along with their validity is explained first. That Qur’an-ı Karîm is word of Allah; miracles of Muhammad ׳alayhissalâm, his virtues, moral practices and habits; how to be a true Muslim; a comparison of Islam and Christianity; that Muslims are scientifically powerful; are explained next.

IS IT PERMISSIBLE TO

IS IT PERMISSIBLE TO PHILOSOPHIZE IN ISLAM? So far, we have briefly examined the credal tenets and principles of different religions and have explained what we thought about them. Now, what about the religion of Islam? First of all, is it permissible to philosophize in Islam? Philosophy is the name of the results discovered by men after they have examined and researched certain subjects using their own wisdom, logic and experimentation. In short, it means: “Looking for the origin of everything and finding out the reason for its coming into existence.” Philosophy means “Philosophia” (love of knowledge) in the Greek language, and it is based on the fundamentals of thinking deeply, searching, comparing, and examining. It is necessary for those who deal with philosophy to have deep knowledge in science as well as in psychology. However, no matter how much knowledge a person may have, he can be in error with his own thoughts, or, at the end of his experiments, his conclusion may be wrong, too. That is why the conclusions drawn by means of philosophy cannot be guaranteed. There are two kinds of ayâts (verses) in the Qur’ân al-kerim. The meaning of some âyats (verses) are very clear. These are called “muhkam âyats” (solid âyats). The meaning of some âyats cannot be understood easily. They need to be explained. These âyats are called “muteshâbih âyats” (parabolic âyats). The hadîths, the words of the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam), are divided into two parts, namely, the solid ones and the parabolic ones. The necessity for interpreting them gave rise to the establishment of the science called “Ijtihâd” in the religion of Islam. Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sallam) too, performed ijtihâd himself. Those ijtihâds performed by our Prophet and his Sahabî (companions [radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ alaihim ajmain]) are the main sources of Islamic knowledge. When new Muslims asked about what would happen to the things they had deemed to be sacred before and what Islam thought about them, Islamic scholars had to answer their questions. The answers to the questions concerning credal tenets formed a branch of Islamic knowledge called Kalâm. The scholars of “Kalâm” had to prove logically why their previous religions were wrong. These – 302 –

scholars (rahimahumullâhu ta’âlâ) strove very hard to solve these matters. A lot of facts plus the very valuable knowledge of “logic” came into existence. On the other hand, it was necessary to tell the new Muslims these facts about Allah: He is one, ever-living; He has not fathered anyone, nor was He fathered. This had to be done in such a way as could be easily understood. The scholars of Kalâm were very successful in their efforts. However, Islamic scientists helped them in this holy task. For example, Yaqûb Ibn Ishaq al-Kindî, a scholar of logic and astronomy, studied for years to keep the idolaters Sabi’î and Vasan’a, who deem the stars sacred, away from their wrong belief. At last, he proved that their belief was wrong by showing them many proofs. Sad to say, however, he himself was influenced by the ideas of the ancient Greek philosophers and joined the group called “Mu’tazila.” He died in Baghdad in 260 (873). During the era of Hârûn Rashîd [1] , the fifth Abbâsid Khalîfa, an institution called “Dârulhikma” was founded in Baghdad. This institution was a large translation centre. Not only in Baghdad, but also in Damascus, Harrâm, and Antiochia (Antakya) were such centers of science founded. In these offices the works written in Greek and Latin were translated as well as the books written in the Indian and Persian languages. In fact, the real Renaissance (returning to ancient valuable works) started first in the city of Baghdad. For the first time, the works of Plato, Porphyrios, Aristotle were translated into the Arabic language. These works were examined carefully by Islamic scholars (rahimahumullâhu ta’âlâ). They concluded that some of the opinions of the Greek and Latin philosophers were correct, but most of them were defective. They were contrary to “Muhkam âyats, hadîths, logic and wisdom.” It was discovered that they were ignorant of most scientific and religious facts, and that they made the most mistakes in the areas which could not be understood through wisdom. Real Islamic scholars, for example Imâm-i Ghazâlî and Imâm-i Rabbânî (rahimahumullâhu ta’âlâ) saw that these philosophers did not believe in the most important fundamentals related to faith; consequently, Muslim scholars reported in detail the wrong beliefs that they held and which caused them to be disbelievers. There is detailed information on this matter in a book called Al-munkizu Aniddalâl written by Imâm-i Ghazâlî. While Islamic scholars were explaining the “mutashâbih” âyats [1] Hârûn Rashîd passed away in Tus in 193 (809 A.D.) – 303 –

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    Hakikat Kitabevi Publications No: 1

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    PART: ONE ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY PR

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    BELIEF IN ALLAH’S EXISTENCE The y

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    a sound-producing machine used toda

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    cannot say, “So it has been, and

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    PROPHETS, RELIGIONS, and BOOKS When

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    of those great religious scholars w

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    “Allah’s slave.” Therefore, d

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    expected the true Messiah (Mesîh)

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    liveth, I am not able to forgive si

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    conversion of sinners. He turned to

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    to the truth. He will not utter his

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    After Christianity had become the o

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    of England, Richard the Lion-Hearte

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    Circle: “In the Second World War

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    these iterations will bore us, but

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    To learn the details of these worsh

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    me a desire to throw myself into th

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    marrying four women is wâjib (a st

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    disobedience or opposition, these o

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    passed away in 1332 [1914]. His boo

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    The first requirement is to break t

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    written by Rahmatullah Effendi, [1]

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    the same time a great source of con

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    Allâhu ’alaihi wa-sallam) comman

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    to Bâb-i Âli with a coffin with t

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    the harm of an average ignorant cit

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    scientists. The writings fabricated

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    As for today, foreigners who travel

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    cruelty, and various diseases were

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    try to annoy them, they respond wit

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    12. In this world and in the Hereaf

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    efore the part entitled ‘Ihtiqâr

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    Allâhu teâlâ and beg Him. This r

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    As it is communicated in a hadith a

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    Abû Muhammad Jerîrî’s statemen

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    e forgiven. This will go on until t

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    19. As hot water melts ice, so a go

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    the author of the long letter above

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    ta’âlâ’s individuality, His a

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    We should not regard people of othe

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    PART TWO QUR’ÂN AL-KERÎM and TO

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    Istanbul, proves with sound documen

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    All worldly existence is transient,

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    Qur’ân al-kerîm, is the true Bo

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    some people, some of them are narra

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    sallam’, will come after me, and

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    had a say in the various branches o

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    which was changed from, “For God

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    interpolations today’s books of t

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    e the ‘Word of Allah’ from 1020

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    Bible’ in London in 1970, makes t

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    had to admit, though tacitly.” No

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    the latter. The forty thousand hors

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    esurrection, and went into the holy

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    such as Âdam, Nûh, and Ibrâhîm

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    As is pointed out on the five hundr

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    words. According to the Bible, when

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    miracle. Jesus did not answer. He l

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    The advent of Muhammad ‘alaihis-s

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    9) The discourse of the Holy Bible

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    For Muslims are strongly adherent t

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    an educational system, Muslims perf

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    the decorated cart on which it rode

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    learned from the Qur’ân al-kerî

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    THE QUR’ÂN AL-KERÎM It is writt

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    part of our book. On the other hand

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    something wrong.” This hadîth-i-

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    Allâhu ’anhâ’ to make him lie

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    EXTRAORDINARY QUALITIES such as HON

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    THINGS OF WHICH THEY HAVE NO KNOWLE

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    And doing all those experimentation

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    “Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salâm

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    “The Islamic religion allows men

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    People of the Book and the Believer

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    themselves first. Then they relieve

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    called Hawâriyyûn (Apostles, or d

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    Qur’ân [which is the Guidance] a

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    MIRACLES of MUHAMMAD ‘alaihis-sal

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    contained in the Torah, in the Bibl

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    8- There was a date stump in the Ma

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    16- Someone inadvertently stepped o

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    children ate the honey for months.

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    father ’Umar ‘radiy-Allâhu ’

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    ’anh’, (who was the Khalîfa at

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    knowledge of the Qur’ân al-kerim

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    unfortunate man had recourse to lyi

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    clouds and Erbed and his camel ware

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    caught the devil with his blessed h

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    seventy thousand angels attended th

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    VIRTUES of MUHAMMAD ‘alaihis-sal

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    21- He saw in the dark as well as i

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    said) at times of trouble or melanc

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    49- Instead of demanding position o

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    other words, it is one of the basic

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    Rising Day.” The two blessed citi

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    79- Angels hear the people reciting

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    shall enter Paradise. Sixth, he sha

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    Rasûlullah said he would supply th

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    easily go in and talk with him. 21-

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    sheep without keeping a single head

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    ig nor too small; it was three and

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    handful long. And it is wâjib to d

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    PART THREE ISLAM and OTHER RELIGION

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    Turkish liras according to today’

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    protects him against the fire of He

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    ISLAM IS NOT A RELIGION OF SAVAGERY

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    conquered Iran, Syria, a part of An

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    not to do after all their abominati

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    efore thee, and bring thee in unto

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    Gratianus, after a consultation wit

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    their co-religionists, the Byzantin

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    Târiq bin Ziyâd ‘rahima-hullâh

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    all of them were lit in the nights

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    cruelty. The name of the mosque in

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    Allâma Fadl-i-Haqq was martyred in

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    [Misguiding Muslims’ children wit

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    preserve their debts on sea or land

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    saw the justice and mercy in Muslim

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    nothing to do with civilization.

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    explanation of the Qur’ân but in

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    men’s feet so that they should re

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    people. People who flout these comm

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    Revolution in 1917, all over the wo

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    MUSLIMS ARE NOT IGNORANT One point

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  • Page 309 and 310: Arûs” (the nuptial night). There
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  • Page 315 and 316: But the provision of thy Lord is be
  • Page 317 and 318: Sûra Mujâdila 9-10: “Ye who bel
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  • Page 329 and 330: SYMPTOMS OF A TRUE MUSLIM The first
  • Page 331 and 332: GLOSSARY Entries related to Tasawwu
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