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Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

Ramadân) or

Ramadân) or to prevent it from consuming alcoholic beverages. A person who denies the fact that it is farz to perform namâz and that it is a Muslim’s primary duty, becomes an unbeliever (kâfir). If he does not perform namâz because of sloth although he believes that it is farz, he becomes a fâsiq Muslim. He is imprisoned until he begins to perform namâz. This should be done without any forbearance or forgiveness. If he does not begin to perform (the daily five prayers of) namâz, he is detained in prison until he dies. There are other scholars who say that he is beaten until he bleeds. In the Shâfi’î and Mâlikî Madhhabs, a person who omits one namâz will not become an unbeliever, but then he will be killed as a punishment. It is stated (by savants) in the Hanbalî Madhhab that he both becomes an unbeliever and is killed. There are scholars with the same ijtihâd in the Shâfi’î Madhhab as well. If a person performs a namâz in jamâ’at, it must be judged that he is a Muslim. For, other (previous) dispensations did not contain namâz in jamâ’at; believers would perform namâz on their own. Another act of worship that they also performed was hajj (pilgrimage). Because namâz is an act of worship that is performed only physically, a Believer cannot perform namâz on behalf of another Believer. Because zakât is an act of worship that is performed only with property, a person, without any ’udhr on his part, may depute another person to pay zakât on his behalf and by using his, (i.e. the former’s,) property. Because hajj (pilgrimage) is an act of worship which is performed both phyiscally and financially, a person who has an ’udhr, (i.e. something which prevents him from making hajj,) may depute another person to go on a hajj by spending his, (i.e. the former’s) money. A very old person unable to fast throughout his life may pay poor Muslims property called fidya for each day’s fast (which he has failed to perform). It is not permissible to pay fidya in lieu of namâz. If a person unable to perform namâz expresses in his last will, it is good, after his death, to pay fidya for his debts pertaining to namâz from the property he has left behind him. If the property he has left is not sufficient for the isqât, it will be permissible to perform dawr. As for fast, it is wâjib to perform isqât for it. (Please see the twenty-first chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss for details.) In the Summer in northern countries, at locations where fajr (dawn) breaks before evening dusk develops into complete darkness, which means times of night and morning prayers never begin, it is not necessary to perform these two prayers, according to the Hanafî Madhhab. The great mujtahid Imâm Shâfi’î ‘rahima- – 152 –

hullâhu ta’âlâ’ ferreted out the ijtihâd that the two prayers must be performed. However, according to most of the Islamic savants, they, (i.e. people experiencing the aforesaid situation,) do not have to perform morning and night prayers. Nor do they have to make qadâ of them. (In other words, they do not have to perform the two prayers later, either.) For, the prescribed time of either prayer has not commenced. It is not farz to perform a namâz whose time has not commenced. Not so with fasting. When the new moon is seen in one country, Ramadân commences in all countries. If a haraj arises as you perform an act that is farz or avoid an act which is harâm, you ought to imitate another Madhhab, (i.e. one of the other three Madhhabs,) wherein that haraj does not exist. Haraj means to do something with difficulty or not to be able to do it at all. If none of the other three Madhhabs is free from that haraj, either, and if the cause of the haraj exists on account of a darûrat, [1] you will be absolved from having to perform that farz or avoid that harâm, respectively. If its existence is not on account of a darûrat, then you have to rid that haraj by somehow doing without its cause. Please see the fourth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss! A Muslim who is late for (the sunnat of) morning prayer should omit the sunnat lest he should miss the (farz part of the morning prayer being performed in) jamâ’at. It is afortiori necessary for him to omit the sunnat (part of the morning prayer) lest he should miss the time (within which the morning prayer should be completed). If he (estimates that he) will be able to catch up with the jamâ’at, he performs the sunnat outside (of) the mosque or behind one of the pillars (within the mosque). In case there is not a convenient place (for performing the sunnat), he should rather omit the sunnat than perform it near (the Muslims making up) the jamâ’at. For, an act of sunnat should be ommitted for the purpose of avoiding an act of makrûh. Farz namâzes missed on account of an ’udhr are called fawâit, which means (farz) namâzes which you have failed to perform (within their prescribed times). Namâzes omitted because of sloth and without an ’udhr are called metrûkât, which means those which have been omitted without an ’udhr. Scholars of Fiqh have termed namâzes (missed on account of ’udhrs and) left to qadâ [1] A darûrat is a samâvî (involuntary) reason that forces you to do something or which makes it impossible for you to avoid something, i.e. a situation which arises beyond your will. – 153 –

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