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8 months ago

Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

‘fâitas (fawâit)’,

‘fâitas (fawâit)’, instead of calling them ‘omitted namâzes’. For, it is a grave sin not to perform a namâz within its prescribed time without an ’udhr. This sin will not be pardoned (only) by making qadâ of it, (i.e. by performing it later and thereby paying the debt.) In addition, it is necessary to make tawba and to make a hajj-imebrûr. When the qadâ is made, (i.e. when, later, the omitted namâz is performed and the debt is paid,) the only sin pardoned is that which has been incurred for omitting the namâz and not performing it (within its prescribed time). Tawba made without making qadâ, (i.e. without paying the debt,) will not be sahîh, (i.e. it will not be a valid tawba.) For, tawba (to be made for a certain sin) is conditional on ceasing from the sin involved. There are five ’udhrs (good reasons sanctioned by Islam) for postponing a namâz till its prescribed time is over: If, confronted by the enemy, a person cannot perform namâz, even sitting or turning to a direction away from Qibla or riding on a animal; if a musâfir, (i.e. a person making a long-distance journey termed ‘safar’,) is at the risk of being caught by thieves, highwaymen or predators on the way; if a midwife is at the risk of causing the mother or her bady to die; it is an ’udhr for these (three) people to postpone their namâz. The fourth ’udhr is to forget, and the fifth one is to be asleep. It is adâ (or edâ), [1] in the Hanafî Madhhab, to manage to make the takbîr iftitâh, and in the Shâfi’î Madhhab, to have performed one rak’at (of the namâz), before its prescribed time expires. It is farz to make qadâ of namâzes that are farz, wâjib to make qadâ of those which are wâjib. If a person makes qadâ of a namâz that is sunnat, he will earn thawâb for a (a namâz that is) sunnat. It is necessary to observe the order of precedence when making adâ of the farz parts and the witr of the daily five prayers of namâz as well as when making qadâ of them. This rule does not apply when the prayer time narrows down. In other words, the current time’s namâz should not be left to qadâ, (i.e. omitted,) for the purpose of making qadâ of the previous namâz, (i.e. performing the namâz that belongs to the previous prayer time and which you omitted.) Another event that invalidates this rule is for you to forget that you have fâita namâzes, (i.e. namâzes that you have missed (or omitted), or for the number of the fâita namâzes to [1] To make adâ of a certain namâz means to perform it within the time prescribed for it. To make qadâ of it means to perform it after that time is over. – 154 –

ecome six. The tertîb, (i.e. the five-namâzes rule,) will not return if their number falls down to below six. Although farz namâzes performed without observing the tertîb will become fâsid, (which means that they will not be valid,) if their number becomes six all of them will become sahîh (valid) when the time of the fifth one is over. For instance, supposing a person who did not perform morning prayer performs early and late afternoon and evening and night and witr prayers (without performing morning prayer) although he remembers that he did not perform morning prayer, none of them will be sahîh; yet all of them will become sahîh when the sun rises (the following morning). Fâita namâzes should be made qadâ of, the soonest. Only, it is permissible to postpone them till after you have earned means of subsistence for your family and performed the sunnat part of the daily five namâzes and the namâzes termed duhâ and tasbîh (or tesbîh) and tehiyyat-ul-masjîd. [1] Ibni ’Âbidîn states as follows in the section where he deals with the sunnats of ablution: “ ‘Permissible’ means ‘not interdicted’. An act that is makrûh tanzîhî is said (by Islamic savants) to be ‘permissible’.” Hence, it is necessary not to do things that are said to be ‘permissible (jâiz)’, and yet qadâ namâzes should not be delayed for the purpose of performing such sunnat namâzes. Qadâ of days that you have failed to fast during Ramadân is not something for doing which you have to make haste. A person who embraces Islam in (a country of disbelievers termed) Dâr-ul-harb does not have to make qadâ of (acts of farz worship such as) namâz, fast and zakât which he did not perform within their prescribed times because he did not know about them. However, not knowing about acts that are farz and those which are harâm is not an ’udhr for people who live in (a country of Muslims termed) Dâr-ul-islâm. If a murtadd, (i.e. a renegade who has abandoned Islam,) becomes a Believer again, he will not have to make qadâ of namâzes which he did not perform during his apostasy. For, Islam does not address itself to unbelievers. If a sabî, (a child under the age of puberty and who therefore is not liable for Islam’s commandments,) performs night prayer and (then goes to bed and) then experiences a nocturnal emission and then wakes up after fajr (dawn) the following morning, he will have to make qadâ of the (previous night’s) namâz, (i.e. the night prayer that he [1] All these terms are defined at various places of the six fascicles of Endless Bliss. – 155 –

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