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Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

performed.) For, the namâz which he performed (the previous night) was nâfila (supererogatory). It became farz for him as he was asleep. If there are namâzes that you did not perform as you were healthy, it is permissible to make qadâ of them with a tayammum [1] and with îmâ [2] when you are ill. A namâz of four rak’ats that has been left to qadâ must be made qadâ of by performing all four rak’ats even during a (long distance journey termed) safar. The four-rak’at farz part of an early afternoon prayer that has been left to qadâ during a (long-distance journey called) safar must be made qadâ of by performing two rak’ats even when you are muqîm (settled). As you (start to) perform the farz of an early afternoon prayer you make your niyya(t) to perform the farz of “today’s early afternoon prayer, or only, “to perform the farz of early afternoon prayer.” If there are more than one fâita namâzes (to be made qadâ of one by one), you make your niyya(t) to perform, say, “the farz of the earliest early afternoon prayer left to qadâ, (i.e. not performed within its dictated time,)” or “the farz of the latest early afternoon prayer left to qadâ,” as you (begin to) make qadâ of each; on the other hand, as you make qadâ of a few days’ fast of Ramadân one by one, it is not necessary to observe the order of time among them. As you make qadâ of namâzes (that you did not perform within their prescribed time without any justifiable reason called ’udhr and which are) called metrûk (abandoned, omitted) namâzes, you should not let others know. For, it is a grave sin not to perorm a namâz within its prescribed time. It is yet another sin to let others know about your sin. Another sinful act is to tell others during the day about a sin that you committed the previous night. Here we end our translation from Ibni ’Âbidîn. As is seen, fâita namâzes must be made qadâ of as soon as pssible, in the Hanafî Madhhab. This rule applies in the Shâfi’î Madhhab as well. Shems-ud-dîn Muhammad Remlî ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’, an Islamic scholar in the Shâfi’î Madhhab, states as follows in his book of fatwâs: “If a person has namâzes not performed on account of an ’udhr, it will not be sinful for him to perform the namâz called Terâwih during Ramadân and to make qadâ of his fâita namâzes after Ramadân. However, it will be sinful for a person who has namâzes omitted without an ’udhr to do the same [1] There is detailed information about tayammum in the fifth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss. [2] It means to perform namâz by making signs. – 156 –

thing. For, omitted namâzes must be made qadâ of promptly.” Islamic scholars in the Shâfi’î Madhhab state openly that it is sinful to perform sunnat namâzes such as the terâwih instead of first performing namâzes omitted without an ’udhr. The same rule applies in the Hanafî Madhhab as well. The Hanafî Madhhab’s ruling that it is permissible to delay the qadâ of the fâita namâzes that you failed to perform (within their prescribed times) on account of an ’udhr, is an indication of the fact that it will be better not to delay making qadâ of them. For, permissible (jâiz) means (that) which has not been banned. Ibni ’Âbidîn ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’ explains the expression, “... permissible (jâiz) to use flowing water wastefully,” as, “it is makrûh tenzîhî (or tanzîhî)... .” When it is better to make haste in making qadâ of namâzes that you missed on account of an ’udhr, it must be obligatory to perform namâzes omitted without an ’udhr in lieu of the sunnats (of the daily five prayers). Ibni ’Âbidîn ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’ states: “When making an ablution, it is sunnat-i-muakkada to wash (each limb to be washed in ablution) three times. It is not makrûh to omit this sunnat on account of an ’udhr such as costly water, cold water, and water needed.” This is another indication of the fact that, for getting over the gravely sinful situation by making qadâ of omitted namâzes, it is necessary to perform also the qadâ of those namâzes in lieu of the sunnats (of the daily five prayers) with the exception of that of morning prayer. How to perform qadâ namâzes in lieu of the sunnats is explained towards the end of the chapter dealing with importance of namâz.] ISQÂT of NAMÂZ for the DECEASED [‘Isqât of namâz’ means ‘to deliver the deceased from his debts pertaining to namâz’. For doing this, kaffârat [1] for his (missed or omitted) namâzes is paid. For the payment of kaffârat, it is wâjib for the deceased to have commanded in his will that it should be done and to have handed down a legacy rich enough to finance it. In other words, one-third of the property he has left behind him should not be below the amount needed for the kaffârat. The kaffârat is paid by the deceased’s walî, who in turn is the person entrusted by the deceased with the care of the legacy, or one of the inheritors. There are four kinds of walîs (guardians) in Islam. The [1] Please scan the thirteenth chapter of the sixth fascicle of Endless Bliss for details on ‘kaffârat’. – 157 –

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