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7 months ago

Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

deceased’s

deceased’s (meyyit’s) walî; a yetîm’s (orphan’s) walî; the walî of a woman whose (marriage contract termed) nikâh, (and which is enlarged on in the twelfth chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss,) is to be made; and the walî of a slave or jâriya. The last (fourth) kind of walî is also called mawlâ. There are walîs other than these four kinds of walîs: Allâhu ta’âlâ’s Walîs, who are also called Awliyâ. They are people whom Allâhu ta’âlâ loves very much. Attaining this profound love requires being possessed of all the qualifications pertaining to words, actions, and ethics and taught by Muhammad ‘’alaihis-salâm’. These teachings can be acquired easily from a true Islamic savant. A person who is unable to find an Islamic savant should learn them from books written by savants of Ahl-as-sunnat. Ibni ’Âbidîn ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’ states: “If a person with fâitas, i.e. namâzes that he did not perform on account of an ’udhr, commands (in his last will) that their kaffârats should be performed, half a sâ’ [2.1 litres], or 520 dirham [1750 gr] of wheat or wheat flour must be paid to the poor for each namâz that is farz or wâjib. All of it might as well be given to one poor person. It is better to pay its value [in gold or silver]. If the testator has not left any property behind or if one-third of the property he left is short of meeting the requirements of the kaffârat, or if he has died intestate and his walî (guardian) will perform his kaffârat by donating a small amount of money, –and since the amount required per day is: 1750 x 6 = 10500 gr. or ten and a half [10.5] kg. of wheat,– he borrows a year’s amount = 3780 kg. of wheat [or, –since the value of ten and a half kg. of wheat is always about one gram of gold–, gold coins equal to it in value, i.e. 52.5 gold coins, or 60 gold coins, to be prudent, or other gold articles with equal weight [432 gr] such as bracelets, rings, and the like.] Considering also that the namâzes performed (by the deceased) may have been flawed, he subtracts the years of childhood,– twelve years for a man and nine years for a woman,– and thereby finds the number of years throughout which the deceased was mukallaf, (i.e. liable for performing namâz.) Because the daily number of namâzes for which kaffârat is necessary is six, he borrows [3780 kg.] of wheat, or sixty gold coins, –which is a better choice,– which is needed for the kaffârat of a solar year’s namâzes. He gives this to a poor Muslim as he makes his niyyat to perform the isqât of the kaffârat of (the meyyit’s) namâzes. The poor person must be a discreet, pubescent, sâlih (pious), and male Muslim. This poor person says, “I accept it,” and takes it. Then he gives it to the heir as a present. The heir takes it and then gives it – 158 –

to the same poor person or to another poor one. The same procedure is repeated as many times as the years during which the meyyit was mukallaf (liable for performing namâz). If the gold borrowed is more (than the exemplified amount), the number of dawrs (cycles) to be performed will change at an inverse ratio. In case gold coins are not available, the walî borrows gold jewellery such as bracelets and rings from a lady, weighs it, separates (years during which namâz was not performed x 7.2 grams) and puts the separated amount in a handkerchief, so that it contains gold coins as many as the number of the years during which the deceased did not perform namâz. This number multiplied by sixty [60] and the product divided by the number of the poor people partaking in the dawr will yield the number of dawrs (circulations) to be performed. If the gold available is little, half the gold in the former case is weighed. The number of dawrs will be twice number performed in the former. For a man who the died at the age of sixty [60], 60x48x7.2=20736 gr. of gold is given to one poor person. For, one year’s isqât of namâz costs sixty [60] gold coins. Thirty [30] dawrs will be made with 100 gr. of gold and seven poor people. Or 43 dawrs will be made with 70 gr. of gold and seven poor people. When the dawrs are finished the last poor person gives the gold as a present to the walî (guardian), who, in his turn, pays his debt. Thereafter dawrs will be made for fasts, qurbâns, and oaths. However, at least ten poor people are needed for a dawr for an oath, and one person cannot be given more than half a sâ’ per day, whereas one person can be paid kaffârats of a number of namâzes in one day, nay, at one time. Isqât for zakât cannot be performed if the deceased did not command it in his will. The deceased should have commanded it in his will. However, since this stipulation does not apply in fasting, the walî had better see to the dawrs of zakât also, by donating from his own property. After all the dawrs have been finished, the heir gives some property or money as a gift to the poor people (who partook in the dawrs). “In case one-third of the property left by the deceased who commanded kaffârat in his will is not sufficient for the performance of all his kaffârats, the walî (guardian) cannot perform kaffârats by spending more than one-third (of the property left by the deceased) without the inheritors’ permission. In case one-third is sufficient for the kaffârats and yet the deceased has a debt, payment of the debt takes precedence over the kaffârat even if the creditor gives it for the isqât. After the creditor is paid his due, he cannot give it (back) as a gift so that kaffârat should be – 159 –

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