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Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

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property donated by someone. This little amount is handed to a poor person with the intention of isqât. That poor person, after taking it, gifts it to the walî or to another poor person, who, in his turn, has to get hold of it, i.e. take it in his hand; then he hands it to another poor person by way of donation and with the intention of the isqât of the deceased’s debt (of acts of worship such as namâz and fast). Here we end our rendition from Tahtâwî’s annotation.] CONCERNING FRIDAY Friday prayer’s being sahîh requires seven conditions to be fulfilled: 1– The location where Friday prayer (namâz) is to be performed to be large enough to be called a city. 2– To make the (dictated speech called) khutba. 3– To make the khutba before the namâz. 4– For the Friday prayer to be performed within the time prescribed for early afternoon prayer. 5– For the jamâ’at to exist. (That is, there should be a certain number of people to make up a jamâ’at [congregation of Muslims], for, Friday prayer has to be performed in jamâ’at.) According to Imâm A’zam and Imâm Muhammad ‘rahima-humallâhu ta’âlâ’, in addition to the imâm, who has to be a man who has reached the ages of puberty and discretion, there have to be (at least) three men; and this minimum number is two men plus the imâm, according to Imâm Abû Yûsuf ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’. The Tarafeyn’s qawl is essential. (Imâm A’zam Abû Hanîfa and his blessed disciple Imâm Muhammad are called ‘Tarafeyn’. 6– There to be freedom for the public to go and join the assembly for Friday prayer. It is stated as follows in the book of fatwâ entitled Hindiyya: “It is farz-i-’ayn for men who are free and healthy and who are not safarî to perform Friday prayer. It is not farz for a person making a (long-distance journey called) safar or for an invalid or for women to perform Friday prayer. It is not farz, either, for men who cannot go out for fear of getting caught in torrential rain or being wronged by government officials. Superiors or commanders or employers can not prevent people under their command from performing Friday prayer. They can deduct the undeserved – 162 –

amount from their wages. If the imâm conducting the Friday prayer is fâsiq [1] and you are unable to prevent him, the scholarly advice is that you should perform the prayer behind him rather than ceasing from Friday prayer. At other times, (e.g. daily five prayers,) you should go to a mosque where a sâlih imâm conducts the namâzes in jamâ’at instead of performing namâz behind a fâsiq imâm. It is makrûh for a woman to go to a mosque for the purpose of performing namâz in jamâ’at, regardless of who the woman concerned is and what the namâz to be performed is.] If a person catches up with the imâm at the rukû’ of the second rak’at of Friday prayers, he performs (the day’s) early afternoon prayer, according to Imâm Muhammad ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’. According to Imâm A’zam and Imâm Abû Yûsuf ‘rahimahumallâhu ta’âlâ’, he should perform the Friday prayer even if he catches up with (the imâm as late as during) the teshehhud (sitting posture). If a person is performing a nâfila (supererogatory) namâz as the khatîb performs (reads or recites) the khutba, he performs (only) two rak’ats of it, and no more than that. If the namâz he is performing is the (initial) sunnat of Friday prayer, there is not a scholarly consensus on whether he should perform two rak’ats of it and thereafter make the salâm or perform all four rak’ats of it. It is essential, however, that he should perform all four rak’ats. There are five wâjibs that should be observed on Friday: 1– To stop all sorts of activity at the time of azân (for early afternoon prayer). 2– To go to the mosque on a walk that is called ‘sa’i’, (i.e. exerting yourself as you do when walking between the hills called Safâ and Merva during hajj, which is enlarged on in the seventh chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss.) 3– Not to perform a nâfila namâz as the imâm, (i.e. the khatîb,) makes the khutba. 4– To avoid worldly talks. 5– To be silent. There are six mustahabs to be observed on Friday: 1– Râyiha-i-tayyiba, (which means to dab or spray on perfume.) [1] A person who frankly commits one of the harâm acts such as consuming alcoholic beverages, fornication, etc., is called ‘fâsiq’. – 163 –

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