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Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

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not have to help each other to make an ablution. Supposing a person uses a bandage [or a plaster applied on a gauze or cotton or ointment] as a result of bleeding or applying leeches or a running sore or a boil or a broken or injured bone; if he is unable to wash that (delicate) part with cold or hot water or even to make masah on it, then, as he makes an ablution or ghusl, he makes masah once on more than half of that part. In case it would be harmful to undo the bandage, the healthy places under it needn’t be washed. Masah is made over the healthy parts of the skin seen through the bandage. It is unnecessary to be with an ablution when applying the bandage. If the bandage is replaced after the masah, masah on the new bandage is unnecessary, even after another one is applied on it. NAMÂZ DURING AN ILLNESS If an invalid is unable to stand or strongly believes that standing will linger their illness, then they perform their namâz sitting; they bend their body a little for the rukû’; and, after sitting up, they make the sajda on the floor, (i.e. with their nose and forehead on the floor.) Then they sit in a manner that comes easy to them. It is permissible for them to kneel or to sit cross-legged or to squat on their buttocks with their arms around their knees drawn close to their body. A headache and a toothache and an eye sore are deemed as illnesses. Another ’udhr (in this respect) is the fear of being seen by the enemy. As well, a person who will lose his ablution should he stand performs namâz sitting. A person who can stand by leaning against something performs namâz leaning. A person unable to stand long makes the takbîr of iftitâh, (i.e. starts performing namâz by saying, “Allâhu ekber,”) standing, and continues (with his namâz) sitting when he (or she) feels pain. A person unable to make sajda on the floor (or ground) recites (the âyats) standing and then sits down to make the rukû’ and the sajda with signs. (To do so,) they bend their body a little for the rukû’ and somewhat more for the sajda. People unable to bend their body bend their head. It is unnecessary (for such people) to make sajda on something. Should they make sajda on something, their namâz will be sahîh if their bending for the sajda has been somewhat exaggerated in comparison with their bending for the rukû’, yet they will have committed an act that is makrûh, (since it is makrûh to make sajda on something that makes the place of sajda higher than level.) It is not permissible to lie down and – 174 –

perform namâz with signs if it is possible to sit and lean (against something). Our blessed Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ saw an invalid making sajda on a pillow placed before him; he picked the pillow and threw it away. Thereupon, that person put something wooden before him. The Best of the entire creation threw it away, too, and stated: “Perform it on the earth, [i.e. putting your forehead on the earth,]! If you are unable to do so, make signs, bending (your body) a little more for the sajda than doing so for the rukû’!” As is stated in the book entitled Bahr-urrâiq (and written by Zeynel’âbidîn bin Ibrâhîm ibni Nujaym-i- Misrî ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’, 926 – 970 [1562 A.D.], Egypt, as a commentary to the book entitled Kenz-ud-deqâiq, which in turn had bin written by Abul-berekât Hâfidh-ud-dîn ’Abdullah bin Ahmad Nesefî (or Nasafî) ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’, d. 710 [1310 A.D.], Baghdâd), it is purported in the hundred and ninety-first âyat-i-kerîm of Âl-i-’Imrân Sûra that “He who can performs namâz standing. He who cannot do so performs it sitting. And he who cannot do so, either, performs it lying.” When ’Imrân bin Husayn ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ became ill Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ said to him: “Perform (namâz) standing! If you cannot do so, either, then perform it lying on your side or back.” [As is seen, an invalid who cannot stand performs it sitting. One who cannot sit one way or another performs it lying down. It is not permissible for a person who can sit on the ground (or floor) or for one who is travelling on a bus or on an aeroplane to perform namâz sitting in a armchair or on a chair and with their feet hanging down. If a person cannot perform namâz standing in jamâ’at in a mosque, he performs it standing in his home. There are twenty ’udhrs existence of (any one of) which absolves you from having to go out (to the mosque) for jamâ’at, (i.e. for the purpose of performing namâz in jamâ’at.) The following situations are ’udhrs for not leaving your place for Friday prayer: Rain; blistering heat or extreme cold; fear of an enemy who may attack to take away your life or property; fear of your companions’ leaving you alone in your journey; pitch darkness; an indebted poor person’s fear of being arrested and imprisoned; blindness; being too paralyzed to walk; having (only) one foot (the other being) cut off; being crippled; mud; being unable to walk; being too old to walk; fear of missing a rare class on Fiqh; fear of missing one’s favorite food; being about to set off for a journey; being a trained medical attendant who has no one to take over duty; a terribly stormy night; urinary (or excretory) urgency; being an – 175 –

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