8 months ago

Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

A person who possesses

A person who possesses property more than a day’s sustenance but less than the amount of nisâb is called ‘poor’ (in Islamic terminology). Every civil servant who has difficulty in earning a living for his family, regardless of the salary he gets, is eligible to receive zakât, and does not have to perform Qurbân or pay Fitra. A Muslim who is teaching or learning Islamic knowledge is eligible to receive zakât even if he possesses property or money enough to sustain him for forty years. Money of zakât cannot be spent for mosque-building, for jihâd, or for buying a shroud for a dead Muslim. You cannot pay zakât to a rich person’s small child, or to your own parents or children or wife. It yields more thawâb to pay it to your siblings, daughter-in-law, son-in-law, mother-in-law, father-in-law, paternal aunt, paternal uncle, maternal uncle, and/or maternal aunt. A poor Muslim should be paid less than the amount of nisâb. However, if he has a wife and children, the total amount may be more (than the nisâb) provided that no individual in the family will have been paid more than the amount of nisâb. Zakât should not be paid to a person who squanders his property or spends it in a way that is harâm. Sayyids also can be paid zakât since they can no longer get their rightful shares from ghanîmat. (Please scan the ‘Beyt-ul-mâl’ in the final part of the first chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss.) There are six conditions that a person has to fulfil so that zakât should be farz (for him) to pay: 1– To be a Muslim; 2– To have reached the age of puberty; 3– To have reached the age of discretion; 4– To be free; 5– To have halâl property of zakât the amount of nisâb for zakât; 6– For the property that one possesses to be in excess of one’s needs and debts. So long as a person does not pay his zakât to the poor after zakât has become farz for him, he is identical with a person in debt, and therefore his acts of charity such as donation and alms will, let alone yield thawâb, earn him sinfulness. It is farz for him to pay his zakât or pay his debt, if he has any. As is written in the six hundred and thirty fifth (635) page of the second volume of Hadîqa and in the thirteen hundred and sixty ninth (1369) page of Berîqa, it is not permissible to [pay zakât and to] give alms to people who spend – 190 –

their money at harâm places or who squander their money. For, it is harâm to support something which is harâm.] It should not be likely that the person who pays zakât will still benefit from it. If one of the husband and wife pays zakât to the other, its benefit to the party who pays it will not completely discontinue. As in any act of worship, niyyat (intention) is necessary in paying zakât. The property of zakât has to be in excess of one’s debt(s) and also in excess of one’s hâjat-i-’asliyya (vital needs), and (the sum of) that property in excess has to be the amount of nisâb. The (amount of) nisâb for gold is 20 mithqals, [which is equal to 96 grams or 13.3 gold coins.] The nisâb for silver is 200 dirhams [672 grams]. For it to be farz for one to pay zakât, the property of zakât, after reaching the amount of nisâb, has to remain in one’s position until the end of one hijrî (hegiral) year. According to Imâm Muhammad, it is makrûh to perform a (legal trick termed) hîla-ishar’iyya before the end of the (hijrî) year lest zakât should be farz. It is not makrûh according to Imâm Abû Yûsuf. The former explained: For, once it becomes farz, it will be sinful to disobey it. And it is tâ’at to avoid sinfulness. The Fatwâ agrees with Imâm Muhammad’s qawl. (Fatwâ is a conclusive explanation wherein an authorized Islamic scholar answers Muslims’ questions. Sources of a fatwâ are appended to it. Conditions to be fulfilled to be an authorized Islamic scholar are explained in our publications, Belief and Islam, The Sunni Path, and Endless Bliss [chapter 33 of second fascicle and chapter 10 of third fascicle].) Property of zakât means property which increases, multiplies. There are four kinds of property of zakât: Quadruped animals that graze on pastureland for more than half a year in mixed groups, or only females, and which are called sâima; property bought and sold for commercial purposes; gold and silver articles; food products obtained from land. Owners of only male animals or donkeys or mules pasturing at liberty do not have to pay zakât for them; i.e. zakât is not farz for them. When youngs of animals such as camels, cattle and sheep are with their adults, they are added in the calculation of zakât. In lieu of property to be paid as zakât, as ’ushr, as kaffârat, (which is defined in the sixth chapter of the fifth fascicle, and also in the thirteenth chapter of the sixth fascicle, of Endless Bliss,) and as sadaqa fitr, it is permissible to pay their equivalents in value. In the Shâfi’î Madhhab it is not permissible to do so. If one’s property perishes after zakât becomes farz (to pay), it falls from being compulsory; (i.e. it is no longer farz to pay it. It does not fall if its owner dispatches the – 191 –

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