9 months ago

Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)


CHAPTER ON FASTING There ar three fards in fasting: 1– To make a niyyat (intention) 2– To make the niyyat between the time of beginning of fasting and that of its end. 3– To avoid the nullifiers of fast during the nehâr-i-shar’î (daytime in Islamic tems), and ends at sunset. The time of imsâk is when the whiteness called fajr-i-sâdiq is sighted immediately over the line of ufq-i-zâhirî (apparent horizon). A person who avoids the nullifiers of fast until evening without having made niyyat (intention) for fasting (within the time dictated by Islam) will not have fasted that day. He will have to make qadâ of only that day’s fast. There are seven conditions to be fulfilled for its being farz for a person to fast: 1– To be a Muslim. 2– To have reached the age of puberty. 3– A child’s fasting is sahîh. 4– To have reached the age of discretion. 5– For a Muslim living in the dâr-ul-harb to have heard that it is farz to fast (in Ramadân). 6– To be muqîm (stationary, i.e. not making a long-distance journey. Please see the fifteenth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss.) 7– (For a woman or a girl) not to be in a state of haid (menstruation). 8– (For a woman) not to be in a state of nifâs (lochia, puerperium). There are six nullifiers of fasting: To eat food; to drink something to drink; haid; nifâs; to vomit a mouthful. Lying, backbiting, nemîma, i.e. talebearing among Muslims, and perjury are not among nullifiers of fasting. However, such acts will eliminate the thawâb to be earned by fasting. Seven people (are entitled to) discontinue fasting: 1– An invalid; 2– A musâfir [the following day]; (A musâfir is a person making a long-distance journey called safar. He is also called a safarî person, versus the aforesaid muqîm person.) 3– (A woman going through her monthly period called) haid; 4– A woman in (her puerperal period called) nifâs; 5– A pregnant woman, if she is too weak to fast; 6– A woman in her period of lactation, if her fasting will be harmful to the baby; 7– A (person called) pîr-i-fânî (and who is too old and too weak to fast). It is necessary to make niyyat (intention) daily for fasting. It is written in Fatâwâ-i-Hindiyya: “Niyyat is made with the heart. To – 202 –

get up for the (late-night meal called) Sahûr means to make niyyat.” There are two kinds of niyyat for fasting: The first kind of niyyat is the niyyat that is made daily in the month of Ramadân, or for a fast that is nâfila (supererogatory) or for a fast that is performed for the fulfilment of a certain vow, and which has to be made between the previous day’s sunset and the current day’s time of dahwa-i-kubrâ. Dahwa-i-kubrâ is half the shar’î daytime, i.e. half the daily duration of fasting, which is calculated as follows in terms of azânî time: Fajr + 24 ––––––––– – Fajr , or Fajr + 12 – ––––– Fajr = 12 + ––––– Fajr . 2 2 2 That means to say that the time of dahwa-i-kubrâ is half the number indicating the time of fajr in terms of azânî time. It is before zawâl (midday) by as long as the difference between half the shar’î daytime and that of the solar daytime in terms of standard time; that difference is equal to half the hissa-i-fajr, which in turn is the duration of time between sunrise and fajr, or time of imsâk. You fast by making niyyat by as late as the time of Dahwai-kubrâ – if you have not eaten or drunk anything (after the time of imsâk). It is not permissible to make niyyat at the time of Dahwa. The niyyat to be made before fajr should be as follows: “I make niyyat to fast tomorrow,” whereas the niyyat to be made after fajr should be: “I make niyyat to fast today.” The second kind of niyyat is for qadâ or for kaffârat or for kaffârat or for nazr-i-mutlaq. These three kinds of fasting require the same kind of niyyat, i.e. the second kind of niyyat. Its earliest time is the previous day’s sunset, and its latest time is immediately before the fajr-i-sâdiq, i.e. before whiteness on the horizon is sighted. Niyyat after dawn –for any one of these three kinds of fasting– is not permissible. It is written in Ibni ’Âbidîn, at the final part of the chapter wherein namâz of qadâ is dealt with, that as you make qadâ of several days’ fast that you failed to perform in the month of Ramadân of a certain past year you do not have to state the days with respect to their names or order of precedence. There are three grades of fasting, depending on the people who fast: Unlearned people’s fasting; learned people’s fasting; and fasting performed by Enbiyâ (Prophets) and by Awliyâ (blessed people who have attained love of Allâhu ta’âlâ). When unlearned people fast, they do not eat or drink or have sexual intercourse. But they – 203 –

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