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Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

who eats and drinks

who eats and drinks floutingly without an ’udhr to do so on a day of Ramadân becomes a murtadd (renegade, apostate). (Fatâwâ-i- Feyziyya.) If a person only chews a grain of sesame, his fast does not become fâsid. However, if he swallows it, regardless of whether he chewed it or not, his fast becomes fâsid. It will be necessary to make qadâ of it. There are fifteen kinds of fast: three of them are farz, three of them are wâjib, five of them are harâm, and four of them are sunnat. Fasts that are farz are: fasting in Ramadân, fasting for making qadâ, and fasting for kaffârat. Fasts that are wâjib are: fasting for a nazr-i-mu’ayyen, fasting for a nazr-i-mutlaq, and to carry on a nâfila fast until sunset once you have started performing it. Fasts that are harâm are: fasting on the first day of the ’Iyd of Ramadân and on any of all four days of the ’Iyd of Qurbân. It is harâm to fast on any of these five days. Fasts that are sunnat are: Fasting on the eyyâm-i-beydhî of every (Arabic) month, on the days called sawm-i-Dâwûd, on Mondays, on Thursdays, on the ’Ashûra day, on the ’Arafa day, and on similar blessed days. The fourteenth and fifteenth and sixteenth days of Arabic months are called eyyam-i-beydhî. Fasting every other day, and not fasting on the days in between, yearly, is called sawm-i-Dâwûd. (The ’Ashûra day is the tenth day of Muharram, the first Arabic month. The ’Arafa day is the ninth day of the Arabic month Du’l-hijja, i.e. the day previous to the first day of the ’Iyd of Qurbân.) There are eleven benefits in fasting: 1– It shields you against Hell. 2– It causes other acts of worship (which you have performed) to be accepted (by Allâhu ta’âlâ). 3– It is a dhikr performed by one’s body. 4– It breaks one’s kibr (arrogance, conceit, vanity). 5– It breaks one’s ’ujb (egoism, taking pride in one’s acts of worship). 6– It enhances khushû’ (fear of Allâhu ta’âlâ). 7– The thawâb earned for it will be on the mîzân (balance to weigh one’s good deeds in the Hereafter). 8– Allâhu is pleased with His (fasting) slave. – 208 –

9– If one dies with îmân, it, (i.e. one’s fasting,) will cause one to enter Paradise early. 10– One’s heart becomes brilliant with nûr. 11– One’s mind becomes enlightened with nûr. When the Sun sets on the twenty-ninth day of Sha’bân, it is wâjib to look for Ramadân’s new moon on the western apparent horizon. When a Muslim who is ’âdil, i.e. who does not commit a grave sin, and who is in the Madhhab of Ahl as-sunnat, sees the new moon in an overcast sky, he notifies the law court judge or the governor. Ramadân commences upon a Muslim’s sighting the new moon. Information offered by a person who holds a bid’at or who is fâsiq is not taken into account. In clear weather several notifiers are needed (as eye-witnesses in determining the beginning of Ramadân). If the new moon is not sighted, the month of Sha’bân (of the current year) is accepted to consist of thirty days, and the day thereafter is, admittedly, (the first day of the month of) Ramadân. Beginning of Ramadân is not determined with a calendar or by way of astronomical calculations. It is written in the books entitled Bahr-ur-râiq and Fatâwâ-i-Hindiyya and Qâdikhân: “If a slave living in the Dâr-ul-harb and unaware about the beginning of Ramadân uses the information on a calendar and fasts for one month, he may have started to fast one day earlier than the first day of Ramadân or on the second day or exactly on the first day of Ramadân. In the first case he has observed fast one day before Ramadân and celebrated the ’Iyd on the last day of Ramadân. In the second case he has not observed fast on the first day of Ramadân, and observed fast on the ’Iyd day with the intention of fasting on the last day of Ramadân. In either case he has observed fast on twenty-eight of the days of Ramadân; therefore he will have to fast for two days with the intention of qadâ after the ’Iyd. In the third case, it is doubtful whether the first and last days of a month wherein he has observed fast coincide with Ramadân. Since fast observed on days doubtful to be within Ramadân will not be sahîh, he will have to make qadâ of fast for two days in this case as well.” Hence, people who begin their fasting for Ramadân not after sighting the new moon in the sky but under the guidance of previously prepared calendars will have to fast for two days with the intention of qadâ after the ’Iyd of Ramadân. How to calculate the first day of Ramadân is explained at length in the tenth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss. [Ibni ’Âbidîn ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’ states: “In overcast – 209 –

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