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Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

ceases after a day dawns

ceases after a day dawns in Ramadân, she does not eat or drink, as if she were fasting, that day. However, it will not stand for a fast. She will have to make qadâ of that day, (i.e. she will have to fast for one day after the blessed month of Ramadân.) And if bleeding starts after dawn, be it seen after late afternoon, she eats and drinks in private. Generally speaking, if a women sees that she is bleeding, she stops performing namâz and fasting. And if it ceases before the third day is over, she waits patiently until the time of namâz verges on being over and, if bleeding is seen to recur, she does not perform namâz, and yet if the bleeding does not recur, she makes an ablution and performs namâz, and if bleeding recurs again, she ceases from namâz again. If bleeding ceases again, she waits until the time of namâz is nearly over and makes an ablution and performs her namâz in case the bleeding does not recur. She continues likewise until the third day is over, and a ghusl is not necessary in the meantime. Making an ablution only will be sufficient. If the bleeding ceases after the third day, she waits again until the time of the namâz is well-nigh over and makes a ghusl and performs her namâz if the bleeding does not recur, and if it recurs, she ceases from namâz. If it goes on likewise for ten days, then she makes a ghusl and performs her namâz, even in case of bleeding. This rule applies in nifâs (lochia) as well. However, a ghusl will be necessary at each time the bleeding ceases, even if it ceases on the first day. In Ramadân, if it ceases before dawn, she performs her fasting. If bleeding recurs at the time of kushluk, (which is during forenoon,) or after late afternoon, her fasting has not been fasting. So she will have to make qadâ of it (after the blessed month of Ramadân). In case of a miscarriage, it will be as if she has given birth to a faultless child if its hair or mouth or nose has been formed. If none of its limbs has been formed, then it is not a case of nifâs (childbirth). However, if she bleeds for three or more days, it is a case of haid (menstruation). Yet it is not a case of haid, either, if the miscarriage took place fifteen or more days after the cessation of the previous menstrual bleeding and this new bleeding ceases before the end of three days, or if fifteen days have not elapsed after the cessation of the (previous) menstrual bleeding. It is a mere case of bleeding no different from a bloody nose. She has to perform her namâz. And she has to fast. A ghusl is not necessary before going to bed with her husband. [Great Islamic scholar (Zeyn-ud-dîn) Muhammad Birgivî (bin ’Alî) ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’ (928 [1521 A.D.], Balıkesir – of plague – 78 –

in 981 [1573], Birgi, Aydın, Turkey,) wrote an extremely valuable book entitled Zuhr-ul-mutaahhilîn and explaining women’s menstrual and puerperal states. The book is in the Arabic language. ’Allâma Shâmî Sayyid Muhammad Emîn (or Amîn) bin ’Umar bin ’Abd-ul-’Azîz Ibni ’Âbidîn ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’ (1198 [1784 A.D.], Damascus – 1252 [1836], the same place) enlarged that book and entitled it Menhel-ul-wâridîn. Here is (a summary of) what is written in Menhel(-ul-wâridîn): It has been stated unanimously by scholars of Fiqh that it is farz for every Muslim, man and woman alike, to learn (Islam’s teachings called) ’ilm-i-hâl. For that matter, women and their husbands should learn the teachings concerning haid and nifâs. Men should teach them to their wives or, if they do not know them, let them learn them from other women who know them. A woman whose husband will not let her learn them should go out and learn them without her husband’s permission. These teachings, which concern women, appears to have sunk into oblivion, as next to no man of religion knows about them. Contemporary men of religion are not learned enough to tell apart the kinds of bleeding called haid (menorrhoea), nifâs (lochial discharge), and istihâda (menorrhagia). They do not possess books enlarging on these subjects. And the ones who have books containing the information cannot read and understand them. For, these teachings are difficult to understand. On the other hand, religious matters such as ablution, namâz, (reading or reciting) the Qur’ân al-kerîm, fasting, i’tikâf, hajj (pilgrimage), reaching (the age of) puberty, marriage, divorce, a (divorced) woman’s period of ’iddat, istibrâ, etc. require learning the information pertaining to (the so-called kinds of) bleeding. It took me half of my lifetime to understand these teachings well. I shall try to explain briefly and clearly what I have learned for the benefit of my Muslim sisters: Haid is the blood that starts to flow from the genitals of a healthy girl (at least) immediately over her eighth year of age, or of a woman after a period of full purity directly succeeding the last minute of her previous menstrual period, and which continues for at least three days. This bleeding is also called sahîh bleeding, (or sahîh catamenia.) If no bleeding is observed throughout the period of fifteen or more days following a period of ’âdat and which is between two menstrual periods, this period of purity is called sahîh purity. If there exist days of fâsid bleeding before or after a period of fifteen or more days of purity or between two periods of sahîh purity, all these days (interrupted by the so-called days of fâsid – 79 –

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