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Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

sun has risen and her

sun has risen and her bleeding ceases as two-thirds of the sun rises in the eleventh morning, bleeding that she has undergone in excess of her ’âdat of five days isistihâda (menorrhagia). For, her bleeding has exceeded (the maximum limit of) ten days plus ten nights by one-sixth of sunrise. When ten days are over, she must make a ghusl and make qadâ of the namâzes which she did not perform on the days following her ’âdat. A woman undergoing days of istihâda is a person with an ’udhr, like one who suffers from enuresis or continuous nose-bleeding. She has to perform namâz and fast, and waty (sexual intercourse) is permissible. According to qawl of Imâm Muhammad, if a girl experiences a bleeding for the first time in her life, and if it continues for one day and pauses for eight days and recurs on the tenth day, all ten days are menstrual. However, if she bleeds for one day and the bleeding pauses for the following nine days and recurs the eleventh day, none of them is menstrual. The two days’ bleeding is istihâda. For, as it has been stated earlier, the days, of purity previous to the bleeding that is observed after the tenth day are not counted as menstrual. If she observes blood on the tenth and eleventh days, the days of purity in between will be counted as menstrual as well, and thereby the first ten days will be menstrual and the eleventh day will be istihâda. Bleeding called istihâda (menorrhagia) is a sign of illness. Flow that is too long may be dangerous. It is necessary to consult a doctor. Red gum called dragon’s blood will stop the bleeding if it is rolled into small balls and swallowed with some water twice daily, one gram in the morning and one in the evening. The recommended daily amount is five grams maximum. A woman’s period of menstruation, as well as that of purity, is the same number of days every month. One month, in this context, is a length of time between the beginning of one haid and that of the next one. Every woman must learn by heart the number of days and hours during which she menstruates and her days and hours of purity, i.e. her ’âdat. A woman’s ’âdat does not change for long years. If it changes, she will have to memorize her new days of haid and purity. The book entitled Menhel (ul-wâridîn) renders the following account on the changing of an ’âdat: If a woman menstruates in keeping with the time and days of her previous ’âdat, it should be concluded that her ’âdat has not changed. If it is out of keeping, – 82 –

then her ’âdat has changed, and the kinds of this change will be explained in the following pages. If it is out of keeping only once, then the ’âdat is accepted to have changed. This rule is confirmed by the fatwâ as well. If a woman with an ’âdat of five days observes blood for six days after a period of sahîh purity, these six days will be her new haid, new ’âdat. Number of the days of purity as well will change at a single event. When it changes, so does the time of ’âdat. Supposing a woman’s ’âdat is five days of bleeding followed by twenty-five days of purity; if her new ’âdet becomes three days of bleeding followed by twenty-five days of purity or five days of bleeding followed by twenty-three days of purity, then the days of bleeding or those of purity, respectively, have changed in number. Likewise, if bleeding exceeds the limit of ten days, so that fâsid bleeding takes place and the last three or more days of that fâsid bleeding concur with the days of her previous ’âdat and the remaining last days of her previous ’âdat concur with the new purity, the days concurring with the days of her (previous) ’âdat are her new ’âdat. Her ’âdat has changed now. If her ’âdat is five days and bleeding starts seven days before her days of purity are over and that bleeding continues for eleven days, that bleeding is fâsid bleeding because it exceeds ten days. More than three days of that bleeding, i.e. its four days, are within her previous ’âdat, and one day of her previous ’âdat falls within the new sahîh purity. Her period of ’âdat has become four days, although the period of time within which it takes place has not changed. Let us provide some more clarification for this type of change in ’âdat: If new days of bleeding that are in number different from those previous to them continue for more than ten days and three or more days of them do not take place within the days of the previous ’âdat, the period of time within which the ’âdat takes place changes. No change in the number of the days (of ’âdat) takes place, and it begins the day when blood is observed. If a woman whose ’âdat is five days does not observe any bleeding within these five days in the following month, or if she does not observe any bleeding on its first three days, and thereafter she observes bleeding for eleven days, her menstrual period is five days, beginning with the day when bleeding is first observed; yet the time of her ’âdat has changed. If three or more days of the (new) bleeding fall within the days of her previous ’âdat, only these (three or more) days are menstrual, the remaining days being istihâda (menorrhagia). If she observes bleeding five days before her (previous) ’âdat and does not observe any bleeding – 83 –

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