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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Map B6.3.1 135

Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity around the world Tables O.1 14 Alignment and coherence both matter O.2 14 Multiple interests govern the actions of education stakeholders 1.1 39 Examples of education’s benefits 1.2 42 More schooling leads to more voting 3.1 80 Few teachers reach minimum thresholds of performance on knowledge assessments 5.1 113 Models of human behavior can guide actions to improve learner preparation: Some examples 6.1 132 Models of human behavior can guide actions to improve teaching: Some examples 7.1 146 Models of human behavior can guide actions to improve the effectiveness of school inputs and governance: Some examples B9.3.1 176 Private providers account for a significant share of school enrollment S6.1 186 Inequalities in public education spending are common 11.1 202 Principles for making the most of information and the roles that actors can play 11.2 203 Principles for building effective coalitions and the roles that actors can play 11.3 209 Principles for encouraging innovation at scale and the roles that actors can play x | CONTENTS

Foreword Education and learning raise aspirations, set values, and ultimately enrich lives. The country where I was born, the Republic of Korea, is a good example of how education can play these important roles. After the Korean War, the population was largely illiterate and deeply impoverished. The World Bank said that, without constant foreign aid, Korea would find it difficult to provide its people with more than the bare necessities of life. The World Bank considered even the lowest interest rate loans to the country too risky. Korea understood that education was the best way to pull itself out of economic misery, so it focused on overhauling schools and committed itself to educating every child—and educating them well. Coupled with smart, innovative government policies and a vibrant private sector, the focus on education paid off. Today, not only has Korea achieved universal literacy, but its students also perform at the highest levels in international learning assessments. It’s a high-income country and a model of successful economic development. Korea is a particularly striking example, but we can see the salutary effects of education in many countries. Delivered well, education—and the human capital it creates—has many benefits for economies, and for societies as a whole. For individuals, education promotes employment, earnings, and health. It raises pride and opens new horizons. For societies, it drives long-term economic growth, reduces poverty, spurs innovation, strengthens institutions, and fosters social cohesion. In short, education powerfully advances the World Bank Group’s twin strategic goals: ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. Given that today’s students will be tomorrow’s citizens, leaders, workers, and parents, a good education is an investment with enduring benefits. But providing education is not enough. What is important, and what generates a real return on investment, is learning and acquiring skills. This is what truly builds human capital. As this year’s World Development Report documents, in many countries and communities learning isn’t happening. Schooling without learning is a terrible waste of precious resources and of human potential. Worse, it is an injustice. Without learning, students will be locked into lives of poverty and exclusion, and the children whom societies fail the most are those most in need of a good education to succeed in life. Learning conditions are almost always much worse for the disadvantaged, and so are learning outcomes. Moreover, far too many children still aren’t even attending school. This is a moral and economic crisis that must be addressed immediately. This year’s Report provides a path to address this economic and moral failure. The detailed analysis in this Report shows that these problems are driven not only by service delivery failings in schools but also by deeper systemic problems. The human capital lost xi

  • Page 6 and 7: © 2018 International Bank for Reco
  • Page 8 and 9: 95 Choose learning metrics based on
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  • Page 21 and 22: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
  • Page 23 and 24: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
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    Education promotes economic growth

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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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    8 Build on foundations by linking s

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    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

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    or nonprofits with industry-specifi

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    16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).

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    Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto

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    SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing

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    All of those skills that help indiv

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    PART IV Making the system work for

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    aligned with the overall goal of le

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    many countries they do not routinel

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    thinking, the curriculum alone will

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    Box 9.3 Can private schooling be al

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    financial support in anticipation o

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    Institute for Educational Planning,

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    SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi

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    Figure S6.2 The relationship betwee

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    public investment. A central elemen

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    10 Unhealthy politics drives misali

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    Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests

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    Box 10.2 How politics can derail le

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    Trapped in low-accountability, low-

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    Educational Research and Innovation

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    11 How to escape low-learning traps

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    Box 11.1 Using information to align

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    on learning can strengthen incentiv

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    Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build

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    education systems effectively requi

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    Box 11.7 Burundi improved education

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    shift aligned funding with new real

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    Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno

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    Working Paper 21825, National Burea

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    ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St