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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Box 5.2 Communities can

Box 5.2 Communities can leverage the many hours spent outside the classroom to boost learning Much learning happens outside the classroom, including from tutoring and at-home programs. Across Africa and Asia, the Literacy Boost program has implemented community reading activities to leverage the many hours that learners spend outside school. These include pairing struggling readers with stronger readers (“reading buddies”), implementing read-a-thons (in which all the books that children read during a specific period are recorded), and providing mini-libraries. Children who participate in such activities have better reading outcomes. In Rwandese communities, implementing Literacy Boost led to better reading skills and school advancement. a Source: WDR 2018 team. a. Dowd and others (2017); Friedlander and Goldenberg (2016). Figure 5.4 What happens when school fees are eliminated? Evidence from eight countries Gross enrollment in years before and after elimination of school fees, selected countries Gross enrollment (%) 160 140 120 100 80 60 −10 −5 0 5 10 Years before and after elimination of school fees Malawi Cambodia Uganda Lesotho Zambia Cameroon Kenya Tanzania Source: WDR 2018 team, using data from World Bank (2017); year of policy change from Bentaouet Kattan (2006). Data at -Fig_5-4. Note: Vertical line indicates last year with fees. Gross enrollment rates include students whose age exceeds the official age group for a particular education level, and so the rate may exceed 100 percent. primary level in Kenya and at the secondary level in Ghana. 44 The flip side of reducing school fees is increasing household income, which cash transfer programs do. These programs have increased both primary and secondary enrollments. 45 Information interventions are particularly promising because they cost little. 46 In some cases, demand for education remains low because students and their families underestimate the returns to education. In the Dominican Republic and Madagascar, simply providing information on the returns to education led to improved educational outcomes, though a similar intervention in rural China had no impact. 47 In India, providing job recruiting services for women in their 20s increased school enrollment for teenage girls. Gender leadership quotas in Indian villages eliminated the gender gap in educational attainment. 48 Though interventions that reduce the cost of schooling are highly effective at increasing school participation for most children, especially at young ages, some children do require additional incentives to attend school. In some countries, parents give priority to sending to school their children with the highest cognitive ability or higher perceived—not necessarily actual—returns to schooling (such as boys). 49 In Burkina Faso, beginning in 2008, some families received unconditional cash transfers, while others received cash transfers conditional on children’s school enrollment. Boys and children who scored better on tests were equally likely to be enrolled in school under both schemes, but transfers with conditions were significantly more beneficial for girls and children who started out at lower levels of learning. 50 This finding suggests that the most vulnerable children may need more than simple cost reductions to guarantee enrollment in school. 118 | World Development Report 2018

Demand-side interventions can improve learning when programs increase either capacity to learn or student effort. Targeted cash transfers have led to more learning when framed to induce more effort, as have some information interventions. 51 Even in low-quality education systems, students learn more in school than out of it: there is a learning crisis, but the positive relationship between schooling and literacy persists (figure 5.5). When individuals with similar literacy and numeracy levels are compared, those with more schooling have higher earnings, most likely because of other benefits of schooling, including improved socioemotional skills such as discipline. 52 Getting learners into school is beneficial in its own right. In addition to getting to school, learners must be motivated. One way to increase motivation is to ensure that learners’ skills are rewarded, whether by a labor market that offers high returns or by a higher education system that admits students based on merit rather than connections. Perhaps the most immediate way to motivate students is to provide Figure 5.5 Not all education systems are equally productive, but even the least productive deliver some learning to some learners Percentage of women ages 25–34, by highest grade completed, who can read all of a single sentence in their chosen language, selected countries Percent 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 Highest grade completed Rwanda Peru Ethiopia Average Bangladesh Nigeria Source: Oye, Pritchett, and Sandefur (2016). Data at -Fig_5-5. Note: The average is calculated across 51 countries. relevant, quality education that reaches them at their current level of learning. In Kenya, students who drop out of school say their inability to perform well, rather than costs or parental pressures, caused them to leave. 53 Some systems seek to further motivate students with merit-based scholarships or prizes. Such incentives can improve effort as students strive to qualify—whether for a direct financial prize, such as in Benin and Mexico, or a scholarship for girls, such as in Kenya. 54 Direct financial incentives have been less successful in high-income countries, though alternate designs that deliver incentives immediately after tests have raised test scores. 55 Providing caregivers with information about learner performance can also have a large impact, helping caregivers to translate motivation into action (box 5.3). But in general, a positive overall educational experience is likely the backbone of student motivation. Remedial education can prepare learners for further education and training Many young people leave formal education with weak foundational skills, and thus they are unprepared for further education and training. Globally, of every 100 students entering primary education, 61 complete lower secondary education, and just 35 complete upper secondary (figure 5.6). 56 About a third of youth leave school between lower and upper secondary. This problem is especially pronounced in several developing countries, where sizable shares of 15- to 24-year-olds score below the minimum level of literacy proficiency—23 percent in Chile, 29 percent in urban Bolivia, 34 percent in urban Ghana. 57 Improving foundational skills early can alter workers’ labor market trajectories. Employed adults ages 15–64 who score at level 2 58 or above in literacy proficiency have significantly higher probabilities of holding highskill, better-paid white-collar jobs (figure 5.7). 59 Youth vary greatly in skills and maturity, putting them on a range of different pathways. Some young school leavers enroll in second-chance programs seeking to obtain formal education equivalency diplomas so they can gain access to further education or training. 60 Others pursue remedial coursework to fulfill admission requirements for postsecondary education or training institutions. 61 Another group— usually those with the most serious skills gaps—goes into unstable, low-wage, low-productivity jobs, while some youth remain out of both school and the labor force. 62 It is difficult to reach all these young people. There is no learning without prepared, motivated learners | 119